Loading...
Ord 511 5/19/1924 R �NAN CE -le7y k - ` TO REGULATE THE CONgTTCTIOI , ALTERATION, k MAINTENANCE, REPAIR ANn R"' V.AL OF BUILDINGS iITgIN � . TEE CITY OF, WICHITA FA��S�., T�S, AND PRESCRIBING eats ;< P`EN.AI;TIES FOR VIOLATIONS: BE IT ORDAINED BY THE B04RD' �OF, ALDERMEN OF THE CITY. OF WICHITA. FALLS, ' TEXAS. ..k d CHAPTER%,X t LD M .1 N _I Sf T R A,T 10 N s -' 'PRELIMINARY REQUIRLMEN ,. NEW BUILDINGS AND BUILDINGS TO B ALTERED, SECTION 1. No wall, structure, building, or part thereof shall hereafter be constructed in the City of Wichita Falls except in conformity with the provisions of this code. No building already erected or hereafter ;' to be built ih said city shall be raised, alteredl. , re- ma .. moved or built upon in any manner that would be in vo- ri lation of :any of the provisions of this Code or the approvall issued thereunder. A REMEDIAL ORDINANCE. � �, ,� {5 SON . :This Buildip Code is hereby declared to r` d a ordi �an6e .,and 1ys`to be construed liberally k' rre the beneficial interests and purposes thereof. .. µ All ordinances and parts of Ordinances inconsistent here- ;�rith are hereby repealed. -107 BUILDING INSPECTOR. SEC ION 346. 'There is hereby crea d .the office of Building Inspector which said office,.F all be filled by appointment of the Board of and ski. d Building Inspeetor,,shall receive such as the Board of Aldermen shall designate., ` t i FILING PLANS AND SPE,CIFICATION'S. P SECT!; ON Is Be—fore ore: the erection.., construct3.on or alteratio of any building, structure, or wall, or of aft , part ''thereof-, or of any platfor*, staging ,or flooring 'tqi be used f'or{ standing or seating purposes , is commenced, the owner or lessee or agent of either, orthe architect or builder' employed ,by such owner' or lessee in connection .�rSth a the r© Os orection or alteration, shall apply tc the for, `permit to do such worko. The appli C —� cation for-91Tc . permit shs 11 be made on a blank 'form Earn- ished by the Building Inspector, and shallstate the exs.ct .. site to be occupied, the materials to be used-,: the dimen- ti ` sions and estimated cost of the proposed building, structure or work and the probable time to be ,occupied in its erection. Full and complete copies of the plans sand sipeeific§ations in cluplicate ,of `such proposed work, andesueh structural do- duplicate 0 osed work " s the Buildin in ,. � �° of .:such:__ p _ ' i s P ; L tailed, drats ng k f ;spector. may:.require, shall' be filed. for all' buildin or. 's ructures� u 5 0 i I One set of said plans and specifications shall be kept in the office of the Building Inspector, and the other set, properly stamped by the Building Inspector, shall be kept at the building or structure in course of erection or approved, the plans ands ec- 11 not be ajt.&rod- in any respect ,covered r) his Ordinen , without the approval of the Bui113ng Tn"- spector# ano he work shall be carried on in accordance therewith. Nothing in this section shall be construed to pre- vent the Building Inspector from granting his approval for the erection of any part of a building;, or any part of a structure, where plans and detailed statements have been presented for the same before the entire plans and detailed statements for said building or structure have been submitted. FAny permit which .may be issued by the , pursuant to the provisions of this Section, but under which no work is commenced within six months from the time of issuance , shall expire by limitation. 1A FEES FOR PERMITS. Fees for the construction, alteration or repair of structures shall be as follows : - to $9OO - - - - - - - - - to j , to to to ORDINARY REPAIRS. ~� SECTION .&. Ordinary repairs of buildings or p struct es may be made without notice to the Building Inspector but-_such.._r.epairs shall not be eons trued to_wifl- c3ude—the°--Qulttring avga:Y-_of,. any. _s, one or -br.� CIL-wall are any ,portion_thereof,-i,,-the.-,removai .-or. cutting,-Of any, beams or.---supports , or ,the removal, change_or closing; of - n?` r f ib`ROVAL 01� REJECTIOA OF PLANS. Z n F���R 4�1 �� •Yf7P ,; ur.p d , ,le,: + (1 ,,4tP01. SECTIONIf upon examination of the said plans and specifications the Building Inspector is of the opinion that the proposed building or alteration is Mb tfti in a acordzc with the provisions of this Ordinance he shall ass e a written permit to the owner, agent or lessee, authorizing him to have said work done in ac- cordance with said plans and. specifications. 1 i i Page 3 Said permit shall be dated, shall show the character of the structure authorized,and described the premises 2 a re cord of the sa me e ' �°mere same is to beerected, end shall be 1lept by the '3uilding Inspector, properly i-n- dexed by street numbers. It shall be the duty of the Building In ector to ai)prove or reject any �?laxzs fled with him, pursuant to the provisions of this 6eetion within a reasonable t:i.me. PEZ.11IT FOT' - FE!.OVAL. 7 (ryf ,,,�GlSEE l f 1 IOP1 �. No building shall be removed until a permit has been obtained from th.e( ) i p ' not issue such permit if �n -- juagme �reoj�*De new location would seri Ol- sly in- crease the .fire hazard of the sirrounding buildings. DELiOIJISHI1,TG BUILDIT?GS. 8 CECTIOIT '+dhen plans and detailed staternc;xits are the >uildin Ins Rector for the ere of filed with g a new building, if an existing building or -Hart �f an e<risting building is to be demolis",ned, such fact shall be .st.ated in the statement :o filed. In demolishing any building, story after :,,tory, co,-,L.-ioncing with the top story, shall. be co?njil e-tely removed. -�io material shall the laced u on the floor. of any such build.ixlg in the pro- p p cess of demolition, but the timbers and other structural parts of each story shall. be lowered to the ground irtr The ma terial 1at erial to be removed .,dlately upon displacement. shall be properly wet down to lay the dust incident to its removal. � ITTS-'EC`L'IUT'? Oar TUITDITT,�;• OPE'IRATIDITS. SECTION S. It shall be the duty o f the 1}u.ildixag Inspector to inspect all buildings or structures in course of erection, alteration or regal-r- as often as may be necessary to see that uch buildings or strl J J cture a 'are being ere0 t ec.-, U.l.t,ered, o:Y' x E'j:�-paired in r. Ell nc e �- i t;i� 1:1 e t earls oi- this, OrdlnalYce _ ncl l e perrtjt issued therelzrLder. The 3u1.l.diiiR In ,, ecto� is hereh -1-ven authority to enter any bu-i! O_Jit-, in the City� T + a�.ls Texa.s� in the pe lorrn�rzco of duties, ar�.d to ors'.-er end coi:tpel the us_)ension of any worh being Borne ill vi-ol.stion of the provisions of this Ordinance, or to prevent the use cf any material or the mainter mince or operaticri of any r.,achinery ill vio-� latioli of to pro of this Ord -r�ance or invio- ''�' lc,�tior- o' the provisions of any other Ord-inance y he City of l7ichita Tpalls, Texas, and no person shall coll- time the construction of any buildi.11g or the use of any material or machinery in or about any bui.ldi.ng- after said T3uildixlg Inspector has directed in writing the sua.ension of '.he use thereof. ADMINISTRAr'ION OF DEPARTMENT OF BUILDINGS. GENERAL POi!FRS .AND DUTIES OF THE BUILDING INSPECTOR k, SECTION The Building Inspector shall be a com- petent architect, engineer, or builder of at least ten years ' practical experience. He shall have the power, and it shall be his duty tb enforce the provisions of this Code. a. CHAPTER L• D E F I NI T I 0 N S. (.SECTION 6. Apartment House - Any building which shall be intended or es gne or or used as the home or residence of three or more families of households living independent- ly of each other. Arearays - Sub-surface excavations adjacent to the build ng ne for lighting or ventilating cellars or base- ments . Attic Story ar A story situated either in whole or in part in he roo . Basement,- That portion of a. building, the floor of which is e ow the curb level at the center of the front of the building more than one foot, but not more than three- fourths of the height of such portion measured from floor to ceiling. polygonal window Bay Window -- A rectangular, curbed or supported—on a foundation which projects from the11balance of the enclosure wall. Also termed "Oriel Window when car- ried on brackets and projecting .Over a street line. Cellar - The lowest portion of a building, the floor of which7is`"5el0w the curb level at the center of the front of the building more than three-fourths of the h�t of said portion measuring from the floor to the ceil ng. Factor of Safety - The quotient obtained by dividing the Brea ng oa or ultimate strength by the safe load. Factory Buildings. - Buildings in which goods , wares , merc -777se aan—C air lcles of general and special utility are manufactured by machinery. Fireproofing Material - Fireproofing materials are such ncom us a ma er als that '-will withstand the action of conflagration. Frame Building - A building or structure of which the eater3`Dr wa or a portion thereof shall be constructed of wood. Buildings sheathed with boards and partially or entirely covered with four (4) inches of brick or stone work shall be deemed to be a frame building. Wood frames covered with metal, whether the frames are sheathed or not with boards , shall be deemed to be frame structures. Height of Building - The height of building is meas- ured. on�� center line of its principal front , from the established or natural grade of the building line to the highest point on the coping of flat roofs , or to the deck line -of a mansard roof, or to the center height of the highest gable in a pitched roof , or to half the height of a hipped' roof . If the grade of the lot or adjoining street in the rear or along the side of the building falls below the grade of the front , the height shall be taken in the center of the side showing the greatest fall. If the total -40 fall on any side exceeds ten (10 ) feet in the length of the building, the height shall be measured at the lowermost corner, and when the height of a building is limited, it shall be terraced or stepped off at every ten (10 ) foot change of grade. Height of line, eitherhatght theof a gradeall is or at the opdof from a base , a girder, the top of the coping, or the center of its highest gable; the foundation and retaining walls are measured from the grade downward. _ i o i i Hotel - A hotel shall be taken to mean and include every bu3Tding or part thereof intended, designed or used for supplying food an0helter to residents or guests , end containing also more than five (5) sleeping rooms above the first story. Incombustible Material - Material or construction which w1II not 1gn1te an . urn when subjected to fire. Incombustible Stud Partition - An Incombustible stud partition is one plastered on T-6-fh sides on metal or wire cloth for the full height and fire stopped between the stud with incombustible material eight inches high from the floor and at the ceiling. . Lodging House - A lodging house shall be taken to mean anil 1nC7Ude any house or building or portion thereof in which persons are harbored or lodged for hire for a single night, or for less than a week at one time, or any part of which is let for any person to sleep in for any term less than a week. Office Building - An office building shall. be taken to mean and Include every building which shall be divided into rooms above the first story and be intended and used for office purposes , and no part of which shall be used for sleepingpurposes , except only by the janitor and his family. Private Dwelling - A private dwelling shall be taken to �mean an . nc u e every building which shall be intended or designed for .or used primarily as the home or residence of not more than two separate and distinct families or households, and in which not more than fifteen rooms shall be used for the accommodation of roomers , and no part, of which structure is used as a store or for any business purpose. Public Building - A public building shall be taken.to mean every u ng used as a place of assemblage or a place of public resort. Tenement House - A tenement house shall be taken to mean and Incluft any buildini/or portion thereof which shall be intended or designed for Or is r°r:ntec7, let or hired out as the home or residence of three fami- lies or more, living independently of each other, and doing their cooking upon the premises , or by more than two families upon any floor so living and.cooking, but having a common right in the halls , stairways, yards , water closets or privies , or some of them. Ton - whenever used in this ordinance a ton is two thousa- (2000 ) pounds. Veneer - The outer facing of brick, stone , concrete, the or metal of an enclosed wall ueed -for the protection of the backing , but not counted as adding anything to its strength. walls - (a) "External walls" means every outer wall or vertlea enclosure of any building not being a party wall. (b) "Party Wall" means a wall that separates two or more buildings and is used or is to be used jointly by said separate buildings. (c ) "Bearing Wall" the wall nn which either or both the floor and roof construction rest. (d) "Division Wall" means a wall that separates one part of any building from another part of the same building. (e ) "Curtain Wall" means the enclosing wall of an iron or steel or reinforced concrete skeleton frame or the non-bearing portion of an enclosing wall between the .piers . (f) "Foundation Wall" means that portion of enclos- ing wall below the first tier of floor joiats or beams nearest and above the grade line and that portion of any interior wall below the basement or cellar floor. (g) "Fire Wall"Beans the parapet walls above the roof , also any division or partition wall dividing spaces into limited areas for fire protection purposes . (h) "Retaining Wall" means a wall built to resist the lateral pressure of the adjoining earth.. and to pre- vent its caving in; also an enclosing wall built to resist the lateral. pressure of the internal loads . d �`CTTOT.: 12. z" to be ,? 1. o:C i ,.t; nor1, i.ol' o_(' t1:e ci-t T J�riti in tt"le f'o11 T�Bs",111'll l " ,�.. (1.(,; �,�-�. f`�� ��',b' :• _.. 1;r`1C','r. `!.t 1' ",11 tE?C','.1�;31 _. street ; trieiice C i7_i7; lY)< 'ortb :l.t`,:: t11E) !Ic - to 'Talle C ?O;1JlPC 1;1'1 'PJh i��1 '�1�. .i"'ti7 I)� lV@Y_' 1. =i. i�z' _C r_' i LlE tIG'8 ,o iVe. to `i ti i C'E e�: ; t't1f?11('f E' i1: 07) ixt- 3t:Y' 81: j;c) _ l.e'iT, }JE 1;; E?11 r,t � ;d � , ec+ —.Travis -on tt f=i.ri St_rr)et to love Itr treet ; i;i:o}lCe ,_ t C, l �lev�)I tl ;�tJ^eet to 1':r avi .. 1;r ec'•1; ; t ':oi_tG( :�otl tl O i `.street to 1-1-1l. trF'et ; thence ,.^t o71 I t t, to ;ic; i t IeV i. ta'<J.r to I rl,ace of be_;ilij)J_nf7. i CHAPTER Il.• BUILDINGS WITHIN THE FIRE LIMITS FIRE LIMITS DEFINED. SECTION %6. The fire limits shall be all that portion of the city within the following limits: Beginning at the intersection of Fifth Street and the main line track of the Fort worth and Denver City Railway Company; thence along said main line of tr.e.ck of said Railway Company in a southerly direction to the in- tersection of the Wichita Valley Railway Company track; thence south along said Wichita Valley Railway Company's main line tracelto where the same intersects with Lamar Avenue; thence north along Lamar .Avenue to . thb intersec- tion of 13th Street; thence west along 13th Street to where it intersects with Austin Avenue; thence north along Austin Avenue to the intersection of Sixth Street; thence east along Sixth Street to the Intersection of Scott Avenue; thence north along Scott Avenue to the intersec- tion of Fifth Street; thence east along Fifth Street to the place of beginning. CHAPTER 1V. FIRE LIMIT RESTRICTIONS. CHARACTER OF BUILDINGS PERMITTED. /3. SECTION *I• Every building hereafter erected or altered within the fire limits shall be enclosed .on all sides with walls constructed wholly of stone, brick, Portland cement concrete, iron or steel, or if approved by the Building Inspector, other hard incombustible materials ; except that buildings covered by the follow- ing sections of this chapter may be permitted if in the judgment of the Building Inspector the public safety is not endangered thereby. GRAIN ELEVATORS AND COAL POCKETS. 4- SECTION ge-. Grain elevators and coal pockets or elevators , as usually constructed, may be erected within the fire limits provided they are in isolated localities and erected under such conditions as the Building Inspec- tor may prescribe, including location. If not in isolated localities they shall have walls of incombustible material. EXHIBITION BUILDINGS. 1S SECTION 93. Suildings for fair and exhibition pur- poses , towers for observation purposes and structures for similar uses , whether temporary or permanent in character, shall be constructed in such manner and under such condi- tions as the Building Inspector may prescribe. f `I 1 TEMPORARY BUILDINGS. SECTION 9+. Temporary frame buildings may be erected for the uses of builders upon permits issued by the Building Inspector, also such temporary structures as platforms , stands , election booths and circus tents . EXISTING FRAME BUILDINGS. SECTION 9#. It shall be unlawful to repair or alter any frame building within the fire limits if in the opinion of the Building Inspector such building has been damaged from any cause to the extent of fifty (50) - percent of the cost of a similar new building, exclutive of the value of the foundation thereof, and any such building shall be torn down and removed, if in a dangerous condition, when so ordered by the Building Inspector. Frame buildings not damaged to the extent of such fifty percent of the value of a similar new building may be repaired or altered, provided that the height or superficial area is not altered or the occupancy is not changed from a dwelling to a store , warehouse , factory or stable; provided, further, that a frame building already erected that has a peaked roof may have the same raised for the purpose of making a flat roof I thereo n if such new roof be covered with incombustible ma- terial. In case the owner of a frame building shall be dissatisfied with the decision of the Building Inspector that such building is damaged to a greater extent than one- half of its value , then the amount and extent of such dam- age shall be determined by the Board of Appeal. provided for in Section 4*%101-71 CHAPTER V. STRUCTURAL PROVISIONS." QUALITY OF MATERIALS= SECTION $. All materials used in the construction of buildings shall be of good quality for the purpose intended. Cement shall meet the requirements of the Amer- ican Society for Testing Materials , and structural metal shall be in accordance with the standard specifications of the Association of American Steel Manufacturers. CALCULATION OF STRESSES. SECTION !4. All stresses used in building eonstriia- tion shall be calculated stresses due to the total dead loads and the applied live loads. The allowable factors of safety or the dimensions of each piece or combination of materials required in a building or structure shall be ascertained by computation according to the rules prescribed by the standard modern authorities on strength of materials , applied mechanics and engineering practice; a copy of said computations shall be submitted to the Building Inspector if required by him. The framing and connecting of steel work shall be in accordance with- the methods prescribed in the handbooks of the standard manufacturers of structural shapes. i I ` 41 FLOOR AND ROOF LOADS. 0 SECTION 314. The dead loads in all buildings shall consist of the actual weight, of walls , floors , roofs , par- titions and all permanent construction. The live or varia- ble loads shell consist of all loads other than dead loads . Every floor shall be of sufficient strength to bear safely the weight to be imposed thereon in addition to the weight of the dead load of the construction as above defined; if to be used as a dwelling house the live loads shall be d computed at not less than thirty-five (35) pounds per super ficial foot over the entire surface; if to be used as an apartment house , tenement house, otel or lodging house , fifty pounds . if to be used �vorffice purposes , the live loads to be computed at not less than sixty pounds above the first floor, and. for the first floor one hundred and twenty pounds'; if to be used, as a school or place of in- struction, , not less than seventy- five pounds ; if to be used as a place of public assemblage not less than ninety pounds; if to be used for ordinary stores , light. manufacturing end light storage, not less than one hundred and twenty pounds ; if to be used as a store where heavy materials are kept or stored, warehouses or factories , not less than one hundred and fifty pounds . The strength of factory floors intended to carry running machin- ery shall be increased above the minimum given in this section in proportion to the degree of vibratory impulse, liable to be transmitted to the floor, as may be required by the Building Inspector. The roofs of all buildings having a pitch of less than 20 degrees , shall be proportion- ed to bear safely 25 pounds per square foot of the surface in addition to the weight of the material composing the same. If the pitch be more than 20 degrees, the live load shall be assumed at 20 pounds per square foot, measured on a horizontal plane. For sidewalks between the curb and area line , the live load shall be taken at 300 pounds per square foot. PROPORTIONMENT OF LOADS . SECTION 12. Every column, post or other vertical support shall be of sufficient strength to bear safely the weight of the portion of each and every floor depend- ing on it. In calculating the necessary strength of columns in office , store, stabl9, public and similar buildings , over five stories in height, it shall be per- missible to reduce the live loads five percent for each succeeding floor below the top floor until fifty percent of the live loads fixed by Section 11 is reached, when such reduced loads shall be used for all remaining floors . All beams and girders shall be calculated to support the full live and dead loads. Proper provisions shall be made for eccentric loading. Every temporary support placed under any structure, wall , 'girder or beams during the erection, finishing, alteration or repairing of any structure , or any part thereof, shall be built of suffic- ient strength safely to carry the load to be placed there- on, and shall be satisfactory to the Building Inspector. 1 i1) SAFE LOADS ON SOILS. V v? SECTION 1,&. ?h)hen no test of the sustaining power of the soil is made , different soils , excluding mud at the bottom of footings , shall be deemed safely to sus- tain the following loads to the superficial foot, namely: Soft clay, one ton per square foot; ordinary clay and sand together, in layers , wet and springy, two tons per square foot; loam, clay or fine sand, firm and dry, three tons per square foot; very firm, coarse sand, stiff gravel or hard clay, four tons per square foot , or as otherwise determined by the Building Inspector. There a test is made of the sustaining power of the soil , the Building Inspector shall be notified so that he may be present, either in person or by representative. The report of the test shall be filed in the office of the Building Inspector. When a doubt arises as to the safe sustaining power of the earth upon which a building is to be erected, the Building Inspector may orderXboxings to be made or direct to be tested the sustaining power of the soil by and at the expense of the owner of the proposed building. PRESSURE UNDER FOOTINGS OF FOUNDATIONS. SECTION 1A. The loads exerting pressure under the footing of foundations in buildings more than three stories in height 'are to be computed as follows , using live loads established by this Code: i For warehouses and factories, they are to be the fall dead load and, full live load establinhed by Section _ 2,0 of this Code; ill stores and buildings for light manufac- turing purposes, and in churches, schoolhouses and pla- ces of public assembly or amusement, the full dead load and seventy-five per cent of the live load; in office buildings, hotels, apart:^zon't hotels, dwellings, apartmalt houses,- tenement houses, rodZ;i.ng houses and stables, they are to be the full dead 'load and. sixty per cent of the live load. Footings shall. be so designed that the loads will be as nearly uniform as possible and not in excess of the safe bearing capacity of the soil. SAFE LOADS FOR MASOMEY. y • SECT1011 tea. The safe bearing; load to apply to brick work shall be taken at eight tons per superficial foot when lime mortar is us6d; eleven and one half tons when lime and cement; mortar is used; fifteen tons when cement mortar is used. The safe bearing load to apply to rub- ble stone work shall be talcen at five tons per superfi- cial foot when lime mortar is used; seven tons when lime and cement mortar misted is used; eight tons when cement mortar other than Portland is used, and ten toxis when Portland cement mortar id used. The safe bearing load to apply to concrete shall be taken at eight tons per superficial foot vrhen other than Portland cement is used and fifteen tons when Portland cement is used. CHAPTER VI. E C,WV IT IOITS _,IM POU.IID.MOITS: a-_PXC.LV.LTIOITS . SECTIOIT iIill excavations for buildings shall be so , -aard.ed and protected as to prevE:nt the some from becoming dangerous to life and limb, and shall be sheath- piled by the person or persons causing the excavation to be made, when necessary to i:)reve:nt the adjoinin6 earth from caving in by reason of its own weight, or by( reason of any weight that may rest upon it. ilhenever there shall be any excavation hercafter coL::r.,enced upon any lot or piece of land, and there shall_ be a building or buildings on the adjoininglot , the person or per- sons making such e oavation shall , at his, her, or their oz>y�ense , protect, underpin or riial-,o Por fectly safe the adjoining property. :�11 e-c-avations for walls, piers or columns of brick and stone buildings shall extend to a depth,below any adjoinin- surface exposed to frost , to a good solid bottom of s,a_ch c ,aracter. as to provico safe support for the loads intended to rest the reon. )minimum thickness ire. inheeCIA 'L'.i.� <r 4 t ra.arnr• .h base Vent. Stories HEIGHT 1 2 3 4 � 5 6 O 0 U 4-� -H JQ U] O W U One s t.ory 20 16 12 two stories 20 16 -16 12 'Z'llree " 24 ' 20 16 16 12 Four " 28 ' 24 20 16 16 12 five . " 28 24 20 20 16 16 3:2 six " 32 28 24 20 20 16 16 12 s For buil . ngs erected for dwellings or apartments* tentments ho el or lodging house purposes, and for buildings de igned for stores on the first floor and dwellings ab ve, the minimum thickness of independent surrounding nd, dividing brick walls , earrying the loads + i' f to rs and roofs shell be in ace'Ordance with the followin , table. DWELLIEG HOUSE CLASS "nimum thickness in inches) 0 Luse- Stories me nt. HEIGHT 2 3 4 5 6 F., o One story 16 12 12 Two stories 20 16 12 12 Three " 20 16 12 12 12 Four it 24 20 16 12 12 12 Five " 24 ' 20 16 16 12 12 12 �' e six " 28 24 20 , 16 16 z 121 12 12 FOUNDATIONS. SECTION �• Under no circumstances shall the founda- tion of any brick or stone building be built upon filled or made earth. Foundations shall be proportioned to the actual loads they are to carry in the completed and occu- pied building. All buildings except as hereinafter pro-tided shall have foundations of brick, stone, iron, steel or concrete; if metal is incorporated in, or forms part or a whole of a. foundation, it shall be thoroughly protected from rust by concrete or other approved methods of protec- tion. All basement and foundation walls , and to a height of three feet above the grade , shall be laid in cement mortar. The tops of all wood piles used under foundations shall be cut off below the lowest water line and no wood pile shall be loaded with a load exceeding forty thousand P ounds . ` 00 I F T NGS. SECTION IS. All basement and foundation walls shall have footings proportioned to the sustaining value of the soil and the loads to be imposed thereon. If the footings or base course be of concrete, the concrete shall be not less than twelve inches thick Low iamg 'qja� The foot- ings or base course , �',� ormed of concrete shall be at least twelve inches wider than the bottom width of wall and at least twelve inches wider on all sides than the bottom width of said columns, piers or posts . For small structures, and for small piers sustaining light loads , the Building Inspector may in his discretion, allow a reduc- tion in the thickness and projections for footings or base course herein specified. CHAPTER Vll• ORDINARY CONSTRUCTION WALLS, PIERS AND PARTITIONS. THICKNESS OF WALLS. SECTION 34. For buildings hereafter erected for store , warehouse, factory, off ice , public assemblage or similar purposes , the ininjmujj. t';i.ckriess of all independent floorsndandaroofs , shall beiin accordancerwith.tthelfodllow- Floors ing table: I i i I i III And when the walls specified in either of the above tables are used for pL.rty walls in non-fireproof build- ings , the twelve inch sections cf the walls shall have corbeled ledges , or be increased in thickness to not less than sixteen inches . vP;hen used for bearing p=arty walls in fireproof buildings , no portion of the walls shall be less than sixteen inches in thickness . All buildings that are over one hundred and five feet in length shall have the side or bearing walls increased four inches over that specified in the above tables for each o.dditional one hundred end five feet or fraction thereof, or have such walls strengthened by proper piers or buttresses . HEIGHT OF STORIES SF0TTON 1�6 . The clear height of stories from floor to ceiling, for all given thicknesses 'of walls shall not ex.ceed., eleven feet for the basement, eighteen feet for the first story, fourteen feet for the second story, twelve feet for the third story, and. eleven feet for the fourth and upper stories . If any story exceeds the foregoing heights , the walls of such story and all walls below that story shall be increased four inches in thick- ness. BRICK AND MASONRY WORK. 30 SECTION 21. The walls and piers of all buildings shall be properly and solidly bonded together with close ,joints filled with mortar. They shall be built to a line and carried up plumb and straight. The front, rear, side and ptt.rty walls shall be properly bonded together or anchored to each other every six feet in their height by wrought-iron tie anchors not less than one and a half inches by three-eighths of an inch in size , and not less than twenty-four inches in length. In no case shall any wall or walls of any building be carried up more than one story in advance of any other wall without the per- mission of the Building Inspector. All brick walls shall be bonded every sixth course or less with full heading courses. In walls faced with cut s stone , terra Gotta or any such materiel and where such facing is not bonded with heading in layers ,wet and springy, two tons per square foot; loam or fine courses every sixth course or less , and made a pt.rt of the wall itself , the facing shall be backed with a. wall of the full thickness given in the foregoing sections and tables. Flemish bond work shall have full headers every third course. When the face brick or ashlar are tied to the walls with metallic wall ties, it shall not be considered as forming a part of the wall , and at least one metallic wall tie shall be used to each square foot of wall sur- face. All brick laid in hot, dry weather shall be wet before being laid. Walls or piers , or parts of walls or piers , shall not be built in freezing weather and if frozen shall +not be built, upon but shall be removed and rebuilt. 1 PIERS. 3/ SECTION �. All piers shall be built of good hard, • well burnt brick laid in cement mortar, except that piers fronting on a. street may be built of stone. Isolated brick piers shall not exceed in height ten times their least dimension. Stone posts or piers for the support of posts or columns shall not be used in the interior of any building. No mt-rble or granite column shall be used for the support of a wall over one story high. ' * .., EXISTING PARTY WALLS. 3 v SECTION. 99,. ��+ alls heretofore built for or used as party walls whose thi.dkness at the time of their erec- tion was in accordance with the requirements of the then existing laws , but which are not in ,accord�nee with the requirements of this Code, may be used, if in good con- dition, for the ordinary uses of party walls , provided the height of same be not increased.. LINING EXISTING vjALLS. SECTION . In case it is desired to increase the height of existing party or independent walls , which are less in thickness than required. under this Code, the same shall be done by a lining of brick work to form a com- bined thickness with the old wall of not less than four inches more than .the thickness required for a new wall corresponding with the total height of the wall when so Increased in height. The said linings shall be supported on proper foundations , and carried up to such height as the Building Inspector may require. No lining shall be less than eight inches in thickness and all linings shall be laid up in cement mortar, the old walls being first cleaned of plaster or other coatings where any lining is to be built against the same. No rubble stone wall shall be lined except after in- spection and approval by the Building Inspector, TIMBER IN WALLS PROHIBITED. 34 SECTION �. No timber shall. be used in any wall of any building .where stone, brick, cement, concrete or iron are commonly used. PP,RAPET WALLS. SECTION . All exterior and division or party walls over fifteen feet high shall have parapet walls not less than eight inches in thickness and carried two feet above the roof , but for warehouses , factories , stores and other buildings used for commercial or manufacturing purposes the parapet walls shall be not less than twelve inches in thickness , and on all party and. division walls carried three feet above the roof. All such walls shall be laid in cement mortar and coped with stone, terra cotter, tile or plastered with cement mortar. r / T OLL011 �'�.:ICi� 1 C�T•1 1.31V :J J. .iJ _ _,.eW IAj.�f YC.E elf". t'ri },Fe t,l(.'f'. .i:�� 'lIOTd `. 'A'he inside forar i_:r1ch of l ay be .7. c)':� hard-bzzrned hollc�V''J a r` 1 ,,,�✓" :•iea and bondei: 1) of fu17. 1 Ot d�za rsew ►9�+' t'T";, ; i {.11 ,n1:�1 :Ei ).1!' '` -f-1�!' lJ L� �.� IL!l �-' 4 i y � hc.).luloV=; tile or �, o�` orr1s t .Li ten' (;�� t?lochs are u5Gt(I t 30.xOLls Cx3 / �� �vrG�lIs, they shall not be l � l s ,_r,r e;.nant of the. thichIless of 37 . CH14 SES FOR PIPES- or - SECTION .. T10 chine for. v,,ater or otIler pipes shall be made in any pier, and in r�o wa, - more than ss i'he chases around sa istl �''' one-third Of it.� tlli.cl�zeu, . pipes shall be .filled up witll solid masonry for the 1 space of one foot at; the top and bottoa-1 of each story. No horizontal_ recess or chase i_n any wa11 shall be made exceeding four feet in 1Fngtb_ Vri t'n.out permission of the Building Inspector. 'To recess shall be made within a distance of six feet from any other recess in the same wall. I' TCT> DIVISIOIT OR -IE JLLa, 'i;TTv ?T �U- I EI' . 38 SEC`IION 4�t. In all stores, warehouses and factories, no single floor area, between brick fire walls of a thickness corresponding to the main :bear_i_n4 walls, shall exceed the following: When fronting on one street only, 5,00� sc_uarc feet for jointed, 7,500 square feet for. mill or. slow -bur7 .ing, anc_ 10,000 ;c1,z re feet for. fl.r. eproof construction. :then c,;Ltending through from street to street or located 071 a corner , c, 000 square feet for jo stud, 9 ,000 square feet for mill or s7_.okrr-burnilg, and 12,000 square feet for fireproof construction. :dhen f-,-- lig on three strc;ets , 7, 500 square feet for jointed, 11, 250 square i.? t for mil1. or s7_ow-bz�.rn-- and 15,000 square feet fcr fireproof construction. e'lY1ell stanc_i:ig :Free, tI1a1 is, vrith a permanent o )en space at least thirty feet wide on all si.d.es099000 square foot for joisted, 15,000 ;square feet "1'or �,1.i11 or slowburning,anc3 20,000 square :feet for fireproof construction. ` ':then the occupancy is other than stores, warehouses or factories , jointed bui1dings ma47 have undivided floor areas the same as above specified, but . Or the other tyl)cs of coast-ruction the above specified areas may be increased 33-1/3 per cent. In case any of the buildings covered by the above provisions are equipLred with an ay�proved system of automatic sor'Ln1.7_ers , the respective areas �bet�Freen the brick fire walls may be :increased 6G--2, 3 perxcent. I � The tic sprinkler. system, il1clud.ing the water 01.11.)pl in connection therewith, :ihal.l be installed and 1:eL)t i.il pe�,feet Vjorl i_11g order l:) r t e o�:vn.er ,l ,sNee or occupant of the premises. lii'lien ,,,,ore than t,1�10 fire- proof or nonL-fir. cpr. 00f builc1i]:l9S copum.i.ilicate, although protected b. double standard fireproof doors, thCy shall be provided with an approved syste;7] of autOM tic sprinklers where occupied as stores, warehouses or factories. t o id- l.l. 0 ?�a:i" Of Wall. lYl �lll;i el luting buili�irlg, nor in. any building hereafter erected, shall be re- moved to produce a larger � rc:a than tho::;c, 11 s.r_iec� ill this section, Openings in the b,'•ick fire .ra11s of builcli]igs shall in no case e.rceed three in Number, eight feet in. width, nor_ more than ten fecL in Iiei0l' , and above each such o-oeninrg, there sti«L11 be a curta.izl wall between the top of the operl:ine, and tlae ceili.ing line of at least three feet. The dpeni_aluu shall be provided with approved auto"lati ( d.ard fireproof doors on both sides of the wall. CHAPTLR VIII. WOOD BE413, GIRDERS AND COLUT.ITIS. �u`OOD BEALiS• 3 SECi'ION Every wood beam, except the header beams, shall rest in the wall, on a corbel, or upon a girder, at least .four inches; min case a wall is corbeled, the birckworl, or corbelin.,_, shall extend to the top of the floor beams. The ends of all wood floor and roof beams, where they rust on brick walls shall be cut to a bevel of three inches on their depth. Every wood bears entering a stone , bricl,, con- cret e or iron wall shall be separated from the oppo- site face and from the beams or timbers entering the opposite side C. the wall by at least eight inches of solid mason worn; such separation may be obtained by corbeling or by staggering the beams. In no case shall either end of a floor or roof beam be supported on stud partitions, exnept in dwelling ,and frame buildings. gill wood floor and roof beams shall be prope-rly bridged with cross-bri_d,;ing at least every eight feet of their length. L'1ZI .' : Li�,yLxDLtZ iiiTD TiIIL B"uli, - SEC`L'ION ate. Every wood header beam more than six feet long, used in any building excepting private residences shall be suitably fra.ried and be hung to the trimmer beams in stirrup irons of proper thick- ness for the size of the timbers. The ends of tail beans shall be properly framed into the header beams, but when it is not practicable to do so , the ends of the tail beams shall be hung to the header beards by Stirrup irons of proper size and strength. BEAM6 itEti? Zli ES. SECTION . rill wood beams shall be trimmed away from all flues and chimneys, whether the Thee be a smoke, air or oily other flue or chimney. trimmer beam shall be not less than tu?e?.ve (12) inches from the insAd_e face of a flue and four in- ches from the outside of a chimney breast, and the header beam not less than two inches from the out- side face oz the brick or stone VlOrk of the same. For the smoke flues of boilers and furtlaces Vnere the bricl.vrorl: is required to be more thUl eight i'1ciies in thicl Hess, the t.. i;mner beams , hall be nor less than four inches from the outside of the b-ric,-1 ork, and the hoUd.er beam shall be not less tharz two (2) inches from the outside of the br:iclt-: ork. The header beam, carrying; the tei.l beams of a floor, and supportin[; the trimmer arch in front of a fireplace, shall be riot less than twenty inches from the chimney breast. "driU YiNCIT.Oi:65. SECTIONMach tier of bearas shall be anchored to the side, front, rear or party walls at intervals of not more than six feet apart, with good, strotlg wrought iron anchors of not less' t' > 1 one and a half (1_1�21 inches by three-nights (3/8) o:f an inch in size. Such anchors shall be well' ;_�ste:nded to tY�.e side of th.e beams when the wall is at right aliFgles, to the length of the beam and hook over the fourth beam when the wall is parallel to the beam. e/ BEkld 11111) 'GIPDER 0TJ1-1 APS. SECTION . The ends of wood beams resting upon girders shall be butted together: end to end and strt-i.p- lied by wrou :ht iron straps of the Same s�.ze and. dis- tance apart and in the same beam as the wall anchors, or they may lap each other at least 'twelve (12) inches ° and° be well s-o d. or bolted. together where lapped. 1i11 9rders shall be anchored to the �r�alls and fasten- ed to each other by suitable iron straps. F j. h' I JJ I'- C ""OOD CO:�ul;a'[S �',J-"D 2L"'TE6 SECTION 1li timber Columns and Po"s shall be squared at the ends at riElt anEles to their an azd iz, e" capped with timbOys Or iron or steel cap, bas , fa tes shall be provided- Ohere the cap plate of r wood- post supports a wood girder and Aroctly on top o! the girder is an iron base plate of the Wood Post abo-,�Oles,thO said cap and base plates shall be connected by pint of metal passing througih the girder; these lintlOs may I be of round, bars of wroug 0 "ht- 0n Or steel proper ea mbor, or an oval shal) i,e and not less than four in n0a be aseat hollow cast-iron pintlO Of may the load-MaitiOnal in each case adequate to trans"t between the iron or steel check plates shall be Placed cap and base plates and bolted to the 911-601: V'1011 re- quired to transmit the loads with safety- TiUBER 02 MUMS- s SECTION en compression members of tru ses are of timbe? , they shall be strained in the direct- ion of the fiber only. When timber is strained in tension, it shall be strained in the direction of the fiber only. The wolkinS stress U-1 timber otrats Of pin-connected trssses shall not exceed 75 per cent of the worhinS stresses used in other charactcvc Of cOm- stroction. UI-IL DOLTS M SECTION 9M. oil bolts u30d in connoctiOn with ti,-iaber ,11-1(3 wood beam Worh stall be provided witb wash- ers of sash Proportions as will relace the comproosioll on the wood at the face of tho wasboT to a proper amonnt sapposin; the bolt to be strained to its '"t ' CH22TEE A. TIEEpRooy CoUjTRUCTIM pJpZpju0F MID&GS. crocted or al- SECTION Q. Every buildinS hereafter tered to be used as a theater vith a 2evtinC pacity of oer Goo, including moving picture and similar ca places v 1011t or public a,l-,eMbly; as a school, jail, of ontertailr lum, institution for the station, hospital asv public ersons, hotel, 10-1ging house, factories treatment of P building which exceets three StOrics and every other buildl or over 55 feet in height , within fire limits shall be fireproof construction, that iS to say: constructed with walls of brick, stone They shall be iron or steel , in which Wood 2ortland OeNe-jat , concrete , beam;; Or lintels shall not be placed and in Which the it, floors and roofs shall be nonotructed w ',I Tolled wrought iron O-c steel beams, with the spaces between the beams filled with brick, hollow tile, hard""t clay' po"S terra cotta, portland cy,11ont concrete , Plain Or re" forced with metal, Or any comminution of these 07 the -it entire corstyuction may be of reinforced LO-r-tland col'ic.rc -1(, otronEth and mothodo _,to. jn0ac,11 ��'j , all cases the irements of of construction shall conform to the rcqu adwork or other inTlamable material this code. A wo Or any of the Partitions, fairings, shall be used in -ep-oof builain&, eNceptln& ceilinns in any such fi! 0 At of the building 0000 not however, that when the han - - exceed eiSht stories nor more than 100 feet , the doors and windows and- their framos and trims , the casinEs, the interior finish whon filled solidly at the bac',,, with fireproof material, Una, the, floor boards and rig ledthe sleepers directlY thereunder, may be space between the sleepers all be s of wood olidly fil shall: d with fireproof materials extend 6iny - up to the un si �ho de of the floor boards. n the height of a fire- er proof bvilJin[,- exceeds ci3ht Stories, or more than loor sr-rface shall be of St One, Ocmen-'6 100 Act, !he f or similar incombustible Material, and all frames and s ash shall be of metal, outside wina0w t fronts. pting those On strOe RATITIONS. 311CCION at. "ll hall partitions Or permanent Par- aings shall be titions between rooms in fireproof buil built Mon the fireproof construction of the floor and beam filling; above, but this extend to the fireproof use of a WOOd blOch "Jer each. shall not preclude the iron upright , provided said wood block or cushion does not exceed in thichneso one_tcnth of all inch to each foot of height of sniq uprights In all fireproof partitions , other than when made of solid brickworl, the opcninEs for Mors and rlindows in snme shall be framed on both sides Ath iron studs Or Uprichts Seca7ed at top and bottom to the floor beamL; ani �Ath 100 iron hor"Ontals between the 00ia M ts ' Eh for the window openingo &na door heads. STAIES. 3ECTIOE an The stairs d stair" landinss shall constructed of brich, stone, Portland cement con- be cons oretef iron or steel or a combination of these materials, quired in Section and shall be constructed as re 3 01�TWOUSTWOUD PUILO DINS. SECTIOE 58. More columns are used to support Myl or steel girders carrying inclosure walls, the said columns W13 be of rolled steel, and an their exposed surfaces be conotructed to r0sict fire by havinS cacinC of brickwork not less than four inches in thichnosSIO''I the outWo suTfacc2 , not less than two inches in thick- ness on the inside surfaces beyond ore test projection, and all bonded into the bricktoph of the inclosurc walls Between the said inclosing brick orh and the columns, there shall be a space of not less than two inches ,Which. space shall be filled, solidly with liquid cement grout as the courses of brickwork are laid. Cant iron columns shall not be used in any building; over six stories high and protected by night inches bric'_. and two inches grout outside and four inches inside. The exposed sides of the wrouSht-WD Or steel gir- ders shall be similarly covered uith brickwork not loss than four inches in thickness on the uutvr sufaces and tied and bonded, but the extromo nutur edge of the f7uiCnE of beams or plates or anglou connectod te the beams may project to within two inches of the outside surface of the brick casing, The inciac surfaces Of giroero may be similarly covered with WuWrt, Or if ,,y,ti,g inside OT the wall they -ball be protect- Q by terra cotta, concrete or other fireproof mater- ial not lesp than two inches in thichnoza. Girders for the support of the inalcoure walls shall be placed at the floor line of each story. FLOOR ARCHES il]-h FL001,,' C01,1ST:,UCTI01J. P jECTiLD 91. Filling botwcen booms iL fireproof bu- ijEjnSc shall be built either of brick or hollow the or ter cotta archeo, concrete arches ana floor slabs or a comb-':. ration of one or more of these materials, alone or in combination with wire cloth, ,:fetal, wire strands or wrought iron and steel bars. arches built of brick, between floor beams , chall be solidly laid in cement mortar to a line on the centers and shall have a rise to safely carry the superimposed. load, but never less than one and one-fourth (1-1/14) _L span between Teams. T h e,�y of an inch for each foot Of shall not be loss Van nine 119) inch no Mot at tho c,r 0 for 2�'npn more tbun six (6) foot , and shall be well bonded. Eollow tile arches when soomaltal Shall be not less than :in (6) inches thick, and shall be laid with the snme rise and in litc nauner as b7ich arches. Flat arches of hard-burnt clay, ooDWWOuc or porous terra cotta, of uniform jonsitl and hard- ness, shall be not less in hei0ht than op and One- quarter (1-1//4) Df an inch for each foot of span be- tween beaDs plus two (2) inches, and shall be laid in cement mortar on rigid centering and the key parts shall always fall in the central Portion. The shells and webs of all end constructed blocks shall abut one against the other. Concrete arches segmental in form shall. be not less than four (4) inches at the crown, and c7ha.11 have a rise of one and one-quarter (1 ) of an inch to each foot of span between beams . When re- inforced with metal , such metal, unless ued for center- ing only, must be bedded in the concrete as required in Section 41. Cinder or slag concrete may be used only for floor arches of six (6) foot or less span, when properly reinforced. Floor filling of solid or,-hollow burnt clay, brick or concrete slabs or beams in combina- tion with wire' cloth, expanded metal, wire strands or wrought iron or steel bars , shall have such metal covered with at least two (2) inches of fireproof materials. INCASING INTERIOR COLUAMS. SECTION 86. All cast-iron, wrought-iron or rolled steel columns , including the lugs and brackets on sane , used for vertical supports in the interior of any fireproof building, or used to support any fire- proof floor shall be entirely protected with not less than two inches of hard-burned brickwork, terra cotta., concrete or other fireproof material, without any air space next tc the metal , securely applied, but no plaster of pa.ris or lime mortar shall be used. for this purpose , nor shall any plaster whether or not on metal lathing be considered a part of the covering required. No single block or unit of insulating material used for column covering shall have a greater vertical di- mension than six inches when placed in position, nor shall the shells and webs of hollow tile or, terra cotta. blocks be less than one inch in thickness , anal these blocks shall be laid up with Portland cement mortar, and the said blocks be suitably tied or anchored to- gether. The extreme outer edges of lugs, brackets and simi- lar supporting metal may project to within seven-eighths of an inch of the surface of the fireproofing. The fireproof covering shall start upon the fireproof floors and continuously extend to the fireproof ceilings or under side of girders above , andbe entirely independent of any ornamatal base or capital. No pipes , wires , or conduit of any kind shall be in- cased in the fireproofing surrounding any column, girder, or beam of steel or iron, but shall be placed outside of such fireproofing.uyhere the fireproof protection of Columns olumns is ex- posed_ to da.lnao e frotil the tY'U.C�in`' O'r' .:18.Y1C�_17Y1 O Aer- c'sandi,e, suc'�i " � ;1�Y�or�^ ;�, o ����;; 0.2 shall be jacketed on the outside for a height not less than four feet from the floor with sheet metal, or with vertical strips of hardwood. i9 r 202 C I C 7- 'Q _,j T.D 1JA 10 ht 0_r* (I s�i d C!�s "I'MI: iron -stool s (il)r_or t ii, o i teel ).) 0 �. C rs STILL11 floor bcams, o-J.' fIO I-`c. 0- - loo I -- be ei.itJreI-y,. incased %7-itb 'hard-bll'_ red clv y, pu-20US tOr'.'CLI U - less o cotta, concrete or otj).er fireproof not -, 's -than :roar inc'fj es in th ich.ne ss , and, t he bottom t2..nd top _)late . ha 1- o�, such girders shall have.;' 1.101, 0 J_ thall or ­,-�c, 1.11ci-ics in thickness Of such ill-SUI t -fila t - al.. The bo` toY.,,i and, top plates --jid. -7, ­,,jjp,es of all wrourrht iron or rolled-steel floor and roof beai-lis, and all qx- pOrtj (-,nL; of such beams below the abutinelItS 0 f 11 floor arches oa.- fillin between the floor beans SlILL L) C terra a be cjjt5r�jly incased -,-jJth hard-bu-1--aed clay,1,0I- 1�1 0- t - _;.lot in- casing concrete or ot1F1.(-,,r Tire-1'00 sach 1� I material to be not leo..,,-, -11-11h.an 1-,wo inr,les in thiclz:- neS S PAINTING 010 !.= IL 113T'_UCTU11-LL ';10i�L- 414-'ECTION "A'here surfaces in r,lveted work come in contact with each other, they shall be, -_oainted be-Fore aetca Paint shall not be required for -fll st- ructural work which is to be thorol,,.Chly imbedded- in -ic)t the concrete or cement gout applied- directl, Lq_L-aii metal 0_-Ccpt as above. But otherwise all such worl-, mast be cleaned of scales , dust, dirt trna rust , and, thorough- ly coated. at least one coat of suitable paint;after -a erection all such vlrorh shall be pairte at least one additional coat. cast-iron columns shall. i-Lot be painted or covered- until after inspection by the Build-j-11C Insp- ector. All iron or steel used under water shall be on- closed with concrete. 1=1-11101EC.TED COITCIi1i',TE OR ('011CIIETE ST-d"EL C 0 1 T 101 12 U CTED BUILD IJIT GS. "reinforced concrete" or "con- SECTION 41. The terir -I - crete-steell, in this section shall be understoo,! to Me all approved concrete m±xer mixture r0illforced by steel of any shape , so combined- that the steel will LLP the tonS4 oylEll stresses and assist in the reoict-anee to shear. Tciiiforced concrete construction may be accepted 'for :Fireproof buildings, provided, that 11-he Minimum thicl:ness, of concrete surrounding the rein-forcing mcm- bers one-quarter inch or less in diai-,ieter shall be one inch; and for iiieubers heavier than one-quarter inch the i�lininiui-_q thickness Of protecting concrete shall- be four diameters, ta,11-ijjL t,itat diameter, in the event of bars of other than circular cro ss-sect ioll, which lies in the direction in which the thicicnoss of the concrete is ir.eusured ; but no protectinL.,, concrete need be more than two and one half inches thicl-, for bars of any size; a and provided, further, that all columns and girders of reinforced concrete shall have at least one inch of material on all exposed surf aces over and above that re- quired for structural purposes; and all beams and floor slabs shall have at least three-quarters inch of such surplus material for fire-resisting purposes ; but this shall_ not be construed as increasing the total. thick- ness of protecting concrete as herein specified. All the requirements herein specified for protect- ing of steel and fire-resisting purposes shall apply to reinforced concrete filling between rolled-steel beams , as well as to reinforced concrete beams and to entire structures in reinforced concrete. Any concrete structure or the floor filling in same , reinforced or otherwise, which may be erected on a permanent center- ing of sheet metal, of metal lathing and curved bars , or a metal centering of any other form, must be strong enough to carry its loads without assistance from the centering, unless the concrete is so applied as to pro- tect the - centering as herein specified for metal rein- forcement. Exposed metal centering or exposed metal of any kind will not be considered a factor in the strength of any part of any concrete structure, be deernedplastr sufficientfinish applied over the metal shall not protection. All concrete for reinforced concrete construction whenever used in such buildings , must be mixed in a machine why-ch mixes one complete batch at a time , and entirely discharges it before another is introduced. From fourteen to twenty complete revolutions per minute must be made, and the concrete mixed for at least one minute after the batch is in the mixer. Before permission to erect any concrete-steed: structure is issued, complete drawings and specifica- tions shall be filed with the Building Inspector,show- ing all details of the construction, the size and posi- tion of all reinforcing rods , stirrups , eta , , and giv- ing the composition of the concrete. The execution of work shall be performed by workmen under the direct supervision of a. competent foreman or superintendent. All forms and centering for concrete shall be built plumb and in a substantial manner with inside surfaces smooth and made tight so that no part of the concrete mixture shall leak out through joints , cracks or holes, and after completion shall thoroughly of wood cleaand ned out , removing shavings , chips , pieces material, which should not be permitted in forms . The reinforcing steel shll be accurately displacement wnileetthe and secured in the forms against Iconcrete is being placed and tamped. Concrete shall be placed in forms as soon as prac-- ticable after mixing, and in all cases, immediately after the addition of water. n Whenever fresh concrete joins concrete that is set , or partially set, the surface of the old concrete shall be roughened, cleaned and thoroughly slushed with a grout of neat cement and water. Concrete shall not be installed in freezing weather; such weather shall be taken to mean a temperature of thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit or lower; concrete shall not be allowed to freeze after being put in place,and if frozen, shall be removed. The time at which forms and centering may -Safely be removed will vary from twenty-four hours to fourteen days , depending upon temperature and other atmospheric conditions of the weather; the time for such removal to be determined by the Building Inspector. The concrete shall be mixed in the proportions of one of cement , two of sand,and four of other aggregates or the proportions may be such that the resistance of the concrete to crushing shall not be less than 2,000 pounds per square inch after hardening for twenty-eight days , but for reinforced or plain concrete columns the mixture shall not be leaner than one part of cement, two - of sand a.nd three of the coarser aggregate in any case. 9-he test to determine this value must be made under the direction of the Building Inspector. The con- crete used in concrete-steel constructions must be what is usually known as a "wet mixture" but not wet enough to be sloppy. The stone used in the concrete shall be a clean, broken stone, of a size that will pass through a one inch ring, or good gravel , broken herd bricks , terra cotta, furnace slag, or hard, clean furnace clinkers , entirely free from combustible matter, and of a similar size , may be used. In the execution of work in the field, work must be so carried on that the ribs of all girders and beams shall be monolithic with the floor slab. In all reinforced concrete structures , special care must be taken with the design of joints to provide against local stresses and secondary stresses due to the continuity of the structure. The contractor must be prepared to make load tests of any portion of a reinforced concrete or concrete steel constructed building within a reasonable ettime after erection as often as may be requiredI he Building Inspector. The tests must show -that the con- struction will sustain a load with a factor of safety for floors and structural members in accordance with the best engineering practice: C i L42 L L)1i_C U 1 LD L."�,a '10 i5i it oj� Ve eretl # o 11 e 1.,,2 C a c,L., cr Tl t I a :3 C a jj, J J- al tv"'oell 300 ai-ld 1)000 i-j-'elucLim, IT tm.0 a"t p Jai'l, i(n', Ll c o,�:,�, o t C, t C. Lt J t Of or 10KH11", house , _ht of ill- a'-- Lill apartlAcilt, 0:C 11ol,I, C or the ,r 01- fivc h,-:L­ht of whic`l i-, fiv­ feet U _c 1 c 0,1 2tc-0-1 CS 01' v wild e V 0 TILt Y -L 1­ ­ I ' _feet ill _L, , shall be Of or fireproof CoIZt-r11(Aio11. 31,]0,2 101� al. In inill conotrv.ctcd Vuil('1,11162' th,0 Post" _L 11. -IJ C- � 0(t-1 J.U- t3j,lall be 110t less th-'1', 10 :: '-0 t'- !- )0. j - - b e P1 0 o', r 6 or s the rooi,v�ri A. 1:1-Y 3 4`L b il-,ches; train __ floor bey In width Lil,.c-1 Sha-il be act, than 10 1107- S I ilot le SS j 11 e-_' ji, width. ,im1 i-,'Il beat toariO r,irders shall be utelec.st 10 -Iiaches, ill de-�_nth; rco:,, U be 0 -o be OP UJI-1 1_13's inches ill width. 0 o ILI c cor.1structea of lic)-t-, less than thr c 0 U I ton-lied and_ groov(,-,�d, spliiied o laid on 0CL,-1e V,"ith b r 0 1-el-1 0­c,4-1,(--r, co vered with One- o in-IL-. t-ho-r cu-U1 Ily o-, ( Cl L I­11-. or laid crosswise inch t )p fjoo j J. diagonally, properly i. k,Tlo pl,"X0­111C, shall be hailed. _:c-tween the top floorin.- and I 1Z ro mu r placed a-.tot less thLul tzro tbicJ7110-Scs 0 V'ILE t c 1 r 0 0f tc ia carefully luicl to break. joints -1 11 f-licl flashed at least three hosts, colu-illa- aIIa with Lill i-aiches uroin'ld a-11 WL inouldinL,s or itio-� -boardS- T'lo or beams shall r( st oil. top of �jxders or Oil irorl or steel 1)l'at,62 in Lj-),e walls and they shall be s-paced accoi--,,Iin,_ to the load to be carried. gird s - erS shall rest oil iron or steel j)lute­ j 1�i, tt-c viailo -and of tji�,111, So ar-i-all-C a L,J_ 01 be ir6ri or ,�teol 01" Coll' - 1. ) 1-) 0 , rders �_Lnd if Of VIC),od, shall P " 1 - be off' solid Material, ancl iT of ilrol-1 01- SAC 01 0 1 U1 11.,o toctod as for ]LE the SOCI- ion (, Overin�:�L) fi.rop'l-oof col'- StrU_meol- . o7?oofS .be of three -illch Uti r _4-he al_ -,ovod iiicombictiblo 1`00f ,,Q ring.till cicvvtor-. p Stal-r�, bolts, pil)os-, vCrits floors shall be illf,16sea Lla walls 1,10tz lc,�os th"'a, o, ,-j-- reirL.flor- in thic"mclos concrete -he or ­uci-I other f-J*1.r0pr00 vj�tj as YL-iay be upp,-o-v-od b,, L Ins'-pector, allcl. all 0 c.,j). yjg_,s -hall be p-ro- t a b s t,,�,,-A a r d ai,t o I'l t is C, o j I I,, f i r o,-d o o r s* Pa r- t 4tions shall! be, o-1-7 th7-oe-jjje,-� jolaialzinr oa- 0- L ­1 U f j,jjCojj_),:StjbJe matcri"IS11 and all Coilill— be left opoll. r B, 'IC)TrCIf�17ITT CT10. the o- (ji mamier Vat hav-.*Ln;- ull -LOCLrts Of the Ccilial�- ai'd elitirely covered vritlh 1-not,' I 1U11,11-, A)d 11) r J.S J_- :1 1 t c r 0 I la incomb-cistiblo j-tiatorlal 20 applied Us not to (,I ilk dislodged, al-ld in whi"A-I ull the floor 1) 0 t-u,C t e a . as S-pec.ificd above for Mill c0lAStr1,1-ctio1-.l, G c 0 11-E,1 der-- ed as being; of sic viburl-lin,',a:, construction. 11, Ull such build- ia,lL;s, the hollow space;; ill uil stud partitioiis and between floor joists, shall be properly fire-Stopped- and the floors shall be double with two iilches of grouting between. C cia2T L'ji� X1• '0':''3..L'1j U Ii'IG S11 c o a n"j. C. 11 b i T t 2 0 w C,S o 0 -A" 11(1-1 be to t. fl rl r)-r­ L� �J"ri c �jU()1. r f c(D '17 In' ho bu 110 aiJ_c";j tho L�vc­."'_� n c !)d m- j DO fJ nlu'�T Tic c',r t 2 t a Tv"i �-)t 11ot to �j c 1 U 1 J C a t- r" c"e th-11- Ll C,he o a 11 c i �7L 4 ctca o- 1101 C X T 0,7.11 ILI L) t c- C' u 0— c n a c v a 1,1 d' J.�n C s c,'n F-" .P 0 c c t J,C;e I'l 0 u Is C,z_ J L "f Ouunl9l a"re,a c1-:c c' fc) -t 0-1-Y d bu ilcll S 0 V(,'11tv, -fi ffn lidrod 7 �r'00 sclua 0 e "n t t,C) j.I C� 4 1'1,,"13 _'I V UO"_,,nd 5 0 0 01 1) :2 q tu 01" 1)c 1.2 "11 no ("a 2 c' .a"I� ll a t 0 cl "I I V ) Toe't 0- t'(10 im, , . " U lin- t'ft 17111 C T tC 1 I Cc j-I10L f" -:rc)ol J-11 U 0"- 0j, b T, C, V"'-) o -root "I�T �-_.(_t,l 1 1. 171(' S t o'.r 1 v'r!"un vdthir). onc, _()j, 1 c rd-, 1 y 0 f b j h Ylot 102o �St y1int t, than cl,Lht i11010- 11- t V no Os f o a r d s all di, if c(I �as a pal' 1'y a thU I001 d '�_ Cd ol so 2 (,��yjd s of th e f! o 0 b c,' 11, C Staf-_ L ,Cci o Jk-i be lbc- t a t u.o t ic— thLITI fOIRr illChes c bri ck tv'Tecii tllc 1-1()1-0 t11o"T -e,�t 011 an V- c o s ed t o not 7--Oo, tf, d- i n -IL--1-1 1.n' 11 c c'S (r)v in all ire to be lathod- o--,- 0 1-11)r! ti, ea ol-I ti,c i n,31 a the Z;aOew11 fl-oor n s t s Or be-UM S SuCh t c t e t t"0 n't, 1 h.e a 1 o! -tul yv"112 o tO L -1 be oi!itLJ)',Y f`Tc­StOPi-_)c'cT ill cut Q. the. fire--,t6l" 11-0 0:--tend aroinid �"�l I fi bo "�rli- ('j t,- t 1.o 3),­1 s I-,al T the, ctu�l via!­I-L; Of '-"c t C"�"e'h floo:c. t f I 0" C, u or 0 o I I c 0 L� I s t ib r 4_ t h i'_' a 03.1. tile r.s I"I vjc, U-b,c" t't-or) A fr 0 bo� fl t 0 Y-1 4'cq to t I I ts hol W7 Or woviL be onAtted.. . q')r0 3-j-­c -,Y- a Corbel06L 017tsha� em - oa", c ov rt: s "T " cP- brie MA tb , , he bl'O"t L 1 Cv C; ,-Cc, OL113Ljoli on hC ac - C ""Sc N, b,c 1)m,i do d- t C, t1fle, over c all 01�1_1,111eyo shall "lies )_11c, i r-o -1 J_ 4- to the t 0-1)- C11 Ill P1 7)4 I)t 2 0 ay c J_ I b -1 1-bu r-nt b r c a.I d- tcrrtt c-lotta- 01) - 1, cc fe-It t tol 1-117 1111 C in-I-nnnoys shall be 1)C) o t a t' I t., k'; I I. ' ','I- I 0"lut two T o 01 (.A, 0 j. a f at 0 ntl� 0 u "Itac " "-I C ITO C,,1 17 S in -Fc,c t abov c the r 11,d C 0 t t ch 0 0 0 _-ftc-r L,o bii-_11 t any build.ij:',`.s ol'octca rl Ur shall be cut Off' b0101"l, -1-" 0-' ol-tcd by vrood, but shall be wholly s III,)Ij o r 6- b y s t C)111 C C io.17J., and- all chim- from the Co-'illclut startil - I to be 03 il-Orl, ,crcultcr -1 ir -0 rcetca or I licys builc IC all - aaLy 0 MaTIT-le", v"clatover cre,�tcd_ wlich shall be cj,,�.n,­,erou;_7 ill anti 10_ - rc or tc,1ren �lovv'11- ",o wood. _1C ,a( or hj...'ney, bl:1.t be 17(,,Palr0d- 0,1 1 c u r,d any c STILL11 be r t _LUrT'111S F t-10 -j)jv,Stc_�rjj-,6 shall be oll t!) rn("t i- It in- ie shall be1-c-- s thL'Ln furnace Or I al'u'-Iciry Stove fl-ac uhul Gies, nor ..-'IIY f -1 tic) 0 t b7,7 tCj�e.] J" o t 0 _V0 inC' CS 'VC t -I e 11 cacl T msure hu kwori: 0f L flu0Of - B l­ e Ove bo 1.1orc. bal- r t 0 v 0 S d- Tor Si13 0 in thicl-alOSS t:Llld be at a 0',D', t ✓1--C,0 S '11--burnit cla-Y Or A 'D 1,11 tj1-)_ "­1-1 '0 0 "A't,11 wed t r r Cc' c"Otta flue: heats tT-le Or StefLIIL 3�2 or othcr a n'_"ra+T1 L; Will, I- bo t b 5 be built to a h1l.L�h C,ri r c' Wi Un. aj r t L t1, Cl ii 0 f whoo -1-111.0 0 tho V1.2110, the ins ldc four ii, _ ].a_ _P -t -170 r j_rC M07 L e t 0 be O-Ar' bricl_ -('C.t! oil t cL1].c e 0 f than twonty -fiv 0 Cc 0O orn the C,ou-rc, of heat. .k. 73) �j -1 L� _ES JA LldlLE'ill 1 be suq)PM�tcd u a i0h sa r" - .11c, ia ardne— p fir,_c,- Troll. or conc-cet o. 11"C"a, arch O:L t, -t7T from the �jj �Lj V -L U t I c a 1,1�11 1� -- -i ( -Shall be fjl I r ar c h he 11,3--t7) O-F n r e,0, thc� 21,j -b c — ilicy brc-_ 't . OU c c'n L)'jj ti not be loop, u .' . J-!" s 31-jull I)Gt e fore b -rche t (�11'11 e r -a ­th. 00111 -Q of all fire plucco harnaftcr wrent ..;C''' shall not bo locs thun 010t HODOS " th!"nons , 0 r solid brlclwor�, uOr 1OSS Wn "A" ircheo W of stcuc , lion U srate 1.0 cot in a fi-cplacu a living of firebrinh ,t ,,,t %,, jnc�os in thic -rocs Vall be UWE to the fire-baM UnIcso soupstnnc , tile or OaV-Won is Man-I and fillej 2olidly behind with firWuOf 10"" DGILEIZ�. SECTION f4, " brick set boilur shall not be piaceLl On ,, wn0d or combustiblo finor or bounu. duod, or combustible floor and MOP undOr UO, not jeS3 thun throe fact in fyont and Ono foot on the sides of all portable bile r, stall bu pyntect 'Li by a brict MUM= of three cuurLos 00 VKQY_ Qr", well laid 1, moytcy an sheet iron; the Mdle courOc Of bri "k- wo7n to be laid crorOwisc , anO with vontilating MOM within rr. between the bricho of 0M MAIM c0lrsc; the o2id sheet iron shall Mend at Ica" "nty foar ! 1"e cvtBiae of the foundation at the sides and front . All luth Urid rlustnr and wood nell1ra, na boa Z' over ans to a Mtancc of not !ros thun fory foot W, front r2 all boilaro zhall be shlQ00d. Mth mctal- !hero ,,Oth coilinZo are to be protected, the mutA to be ,,qj ,d h,ll leave an air u2aco of not loso than one- quartcr of an inch betwocn the motal. unP cKIMS- ahcrc beumo are exposed , the nmtul to be applied Mull WINN the coi-itonr of the boams. The diotunce from the top of the boiler and the 00010-P1y_O It therefrom, to said shield shall not be lOss than twenty four lwch0s , anO- no unprotected steam domc or hcuacr Ehull be nouror thaii twolve f12) inches to uny combrutible mAx! matcriul- Do combustible partition shu? l be within fonr Met of the sions ano bact UPI xin foot frow tho front of an.i; unjous said partition stall bu Prvcv0d ""), bollar, I I I W I h 0 metal to the hcQht Of at act thr" "T anovu �_` and shall entcnd from the ord or bach of the !Oilcr W 10a;t rive foot in frcnt of it ; then the dish"ec 0hall-, bu not 1,,s than two feet from the Hides aDg five ROL from the front of the boilcr- HOT- nIA WWES- 1 bk "I r--sces shall have We SECTIONt tii coveys, with an air spacc Of A TWA four inches bct- ool� them, the inner cover of the hot air uhWW" shall bt�; b,j,t ,,h 0, two cayrpou of brick lula on Zwl - C vanizod iron Or tin, supTorted OP iron =2; the outsi-O ' -u C jhull be made a-C c,11 I �_, t�ic top of,thc f,-r-na e ,, coverl -Ad c brick or LOW. SOPPOrted on irOn bars, so onstructed � as to be p orfcct!7 HEM, and chull be Mt, 1�" ,73 t'_1 -')-1 - twe' v( inoWs below any combustible ceili% or flonr beams. The ,,Ils of Inc fnrnace shall be built hollow in the KHOO- ing �unncy ; one inner and one outcr wall, ouch you il"100 in thicken 20,proporly MOW togetber, with an air QuOu, cf not to than three innhcs Mween them. Turn ancs Vall be built at Must twelvc inches from all woodmor" All portable hot-air furnaces shall be placed at least two feet from any wood or combustible partition or ceiling and such partitions and ceilings shall be properly protected by-. a metal shield when the distance is less than three feet. Wood floors under all portable furnaces shall be protected by three courses of brick- work, well laid in mortar on galvanized sheet iron, the middle course to be laid crosswise, and with ventilating spaces within or between the bricks of said middle course. Said brickwork shall extend at least two feet beyond the furnace in front of the ash pan. The cold air boxes of all hot air furnaces shall be made of metal, brick or other incombustible material. These cold-air b or pipes shall be absolutley free from dampers r er obstructions, unless part of the circulation is taken from the inside as in a return sys- tem, in which case dampers in the outside supply will be permitted. The size of cold-air pipes or ducts entering from the out- side shall be 75 per cent of the combined area of all hot-air pipes, and where air is taken from the inside only, these pipes shall be 90 per cent of the combined area of the warm-air pipes. � REGISTERS. SECTION 4-&. Registers located over a brick furnace shall be supported by a brick shaft built up from the cover of the hot-air chamber; said shaft shall be lined with a metal pipe, and all wood beams shall be trimmed away not less than four inches from it. Where a register is placed on any woodwork in con- nection with a metal pipe or duct, the end of the said pipe or duct shall be flanged over the woodwork under - it. All registers for hot-air furnaces placed in any woodwork or combustible floors shall have stone or iron borders firmly set in plaster of Paris or guaged mortar, All register boxes shall be made of tin plate or galvanized iron with a flange on the top to fit the groove in the open frame, the register to rest upon the same; there shall be an open space of two inches on all sides of the register box, extending from the underside of the border to and through the ceiling below# The said opening shall be fitted with a tight tin or galvanized iron casing, the upper end of which shall be turned under the frame. When a register box is placed in the floor over a portable furnace, the open space on all sides of the register box shall not be less than three inches. When only one register is connected with a furnace, said register shall have no valve or slats, and where two or more registers are connected with a furnace, at least one of them shall have no valve or slats. r 3r e I i j I HOT-AIR FLUES, PIPES AND VENT DUCTS. SECTION 44', Horizontal Jtot-air pipes shall be placed six (6) inches below the floor beam or ceiling; if he floor beams or ceiling are plastered and protected'�y� metal shield, then the distance shall not be less than three inches. All pipes or conductors to be used for the transmission of warm or heated air for heating purposes within, between, or along the walls, ceilirW or floors of any building shall be constructed as follows: When a double pipe is used, it shall be constructed of two sheets of tin or other suitable metal securely fasten- ed together so as to leave an open air space of not less than one-half inch between said sheets of metal. STEAM HOT WATER HEATING PIPES SECTION Steam or hot water heating pipes shall not be placed within two inches of any timber or woodwork, unless the woodwork is protected by a metal shield, then the distance shall be not less than one inch, i i ep All steam or hot water heating pipes passing through floors and ceilings of lath and plastered par- titions shall be protected by a metal tube passing entirely through floors and ceilings or partitions , one inch larger in diameter tf-an the pipe , having a metal cap at the floor. where they are run in a. hor- '' izontal direction between a ceiling and floor, a metal shield shall be placed on the under side of the floor over them, and on the sides of the wood beams running parallel with side pipes . All wood boxes or casing enclosing steam or hot water heating pipes and all wood covers to recesses in walls in which steam or hot water heatin*ipes- are placed, shall be lined with metal. All Steam and hot water pipe covering shall consist of fireproof material only. RANGES AND STOVES. �J SECTION . Where a kitchen range is placed from twelve to six inches from a. wood stud partition, the said partition shall be shielded with-metal from the floor to a height of not less than three feet higher than the range; if the range is within six inches of the partition, then the studs shall be cut away and framed Ithree feet hil4er and one foot wider than the range, and filled in, to the face of the said stud partition with brick or fireproof blocks and plastered thereon. I' ,a All ranges on wood or combustible floors and*, beams that are not apported on legs and have ash pans three inches or more above their base shall be set on suitable brick foundation, consisting of not less than two courses of brick well laid in mortar on galvanized sheet iron, except small ranges such as are used in apartment houses , that have ash pans three inches or more above their base, shall be placed on at least one course of brickwork on galvanized sheet iron. No range shall be placed against a furred wall. All lath and plaster or wood ceilings over all large ranges in hotels and restaurants shall be guard- ed by metal hoods placed at least nine inches below the ceilings . A ventilating pipe connected with a hood. over a range shall be an individual pipe , having no connec- tion with any o,-ber pipe , and shall be covered with one inch of asbestos on wire mesh, and shall not be less than nine inches from wood or lath and plaster work which shall be shielded with metal. The pipe shall go either outside of the building and discharge at least four feet above the roof, or be connected with a suitable brick flue lined with burnt clay or heavy., iron pipe, which shall be used exclusively for the ventilating pipe of the range. Laundry stoves oii mood or combustible floors shall have a course 'of ,brcks ,. laid on`metal , on the floor under and extending twenty-four inches on all sides of them. All stoves for heating purposes shall be proper- ly supported on iron legs , resting on the floor three feet from all lath and plaster or woodwork; if the lath and plaster or woodwork is properly protected by a metal diield, then the distance shall be not less than eighteen inhes. 1 metal shield shall. be placed under and twelve (121 inches in front of the ash pan of all stoves that are placed on wood floors. All low gas stoves shall be placed on iron stands or the burner shall be at least six inches above the base of the stoves , and metal guard plates placed four inches below the burners , and all woodwork under them shall be covered with metal. Gas connections to such stoves shall be made by metal pipes , unless there is no valve on the gas stone. RECEPTACLES FOR ASHES. SECTION l'. All receptacles for ashes shall be of incombustible material. ry , I SMOKE PIPES SECTION -R. No smoke pipe shall be placed nearer than nine (9 ) inches to any lath or plastered or board partition, ceiling or any woodworl�. Smoke pipes of laundry stoves , large cooking ranges and all furnaces , shall be not less than fifteen inch- es from any woodwork, unless they are properly guard- ed by metal shields; if so guarded, smoke pipes shall not be less than nine inches distant. Where smoke pipes pass through a lat'n and plastered partition, they shall be guarded by galvanized iron ventilated thimbles at least twelve inches larger in diameter than the pipes , or by galvanized iron thim- bles built in at least eight inches of brickwork. No smoke pipe shall pass through any floor. No smoke pipe shall pass through the roof of any build- ing unless a special permit be first obtained from t1V Building Inspector for the same. If a permit is granted, then the roof through which the smoke pipe passes shall be protected in the following manner: _L galvanized iron ventilator thimble of the follow- ing dimensions shall be. placed: In case of stove pipe, the diameter of the outside guard shall be not less than twelve (12) inches and the diameter of ' the inner one eight (8) inches larger than the smoke pipe and for all furnaces or where similar .la.rge hot fires are used, the diameter of the outsid guard shall be not less than eiLateen inhes , and the diameter of the inner one twelve (12 ) inches larger in diameter than the pipe. The smoke pipe thimbles- shall e.K.tend from the under side of the ceiling or roof beams to at least nine(9) inches above the roof , andthey shall have openings for ventilation &.t the lower end where the smoke pipes enter, also at the top ofthe guards above the roof. There the smoke pipe of a boiler passes through a roof the same shall be guarded by a ventilated thim- ble same as before specified, thirty-six inches larger than the diameter of the smoke pipe of the boiler. DRYING ROOMS SLa'C All walls , ceilings and partitions TION �`3. enclosing drying rooms shall be made of fireproof material. jNOTICE AS TO HEATING APPAIF� TUS SECTION 1There hot water, steam or hot air or other heating appliances or furnaces Rrp hereafter placed in any building;or flues or fireplaces are changed or enlarged, due notice shall first be given to the Building Inspector by the person or persons placing the said furnace or furnaces in said build- ing, or by the contractor or superintendent of said work. No hot-air pipe shall be concealed until it has been inspected and. a pproved by the Building..Inspec- tor. �I r , CHAPTER X13:1. ELEVATORS, HOIST, AYS AIiD DUMB T°'AITrRS. ELEVATORS AND HOIST�.AYS. SECTION 4�5. In any building in which there exists any hoistway or freight elevator or well-hole not enclosed in walls constructed of brick or other fire- proof material and provided with fireproof doors , the openings thereof through and upon each floor of said building shall be provided with and protected by a substantial guard or gate , and with good and sufficient automatic trap-doors , properly couriter-weighted., covered with tin on the under side and edges, in ac- cordance with the standard for fire-doors , and. so con- structed as to form a substantial floor surface when closed. The guards or gates and railings shall be of such material and form of construction as may be ap- proved by the Building Inspector. Such guards or gates shall be kept closed at all times ,except when in actual use , and the trap-doors shall be closed at the close of business each day by the occu- pant or occupants of the building having the use or control of the same. C ELEVATOR INCLOSUNES. SECTION 5*. All elevators hereafter placed in any building shall be enclosed in suitable walls of brick, or with a suitable framework of iron and. burnt-clay filling, or with such other fireproof material and form of construction as in the opinion of the Building In- spector may be equally as good, except that the enclo- sure walls in non-fireproof buildings exceeding three stories in height and used as warehouses, stores or factories , shall .�be of solid sha.ftl f ornamental me�alrande is of prime im.poltance , a wire glass may be used. If the enclosure walls are of brick laid in cement mortar, and not used as bearing walls , they may be eight inches in thickness for not more than fifty feet of their uppermost height, and. increasing, in thickness four inches for the remaining lower portion or part thereof. In fireproof buildings when the construction of the elevator enclosure is of iron framework and burnt-clay filling or other approved materials , the said construction shall be not less than six inches in thickness . Said walls or construction shall in all cases extend through and at least three feet above the roof and be crowned with a skylight three-fourths the area of the shaft , the glass to be not more than one-eighth of an inch thick and -cov- ered above and. below with strong wire netting, but wired glass shall not be used in skylights over elevator en- closures. All door openings in any inclosures shall be pro- vided with standard fire doors made solid. for their full height, and hung to rabbeted wrought-iron or steel frames or to wrought-iron eyes built into the wall and shall have iron, stone or concrete door-sills of the full width and length of the openings . In buildings other - than warehouses and factories , lights of wired glass , in approved metal frames , may be placed in such doors , but no one pane shall exceed seven hundred and twenty square inches in size. Then the shaft does not extend to the bottom of the cellar or loudest story, the lower end shall be in- closed in fireproof material. When the inclosure of an elevator has an opening to accommodate machinery for operating same, such as shafts , pulleys , drums , cables , etc . , said machinery shall be inclosed in a similar manner to the shaft. DUMB WAITERS. SECTION 75. All dumb waiter shafts shall be inclos- ed in suitable walls of brick or with burnt-clay blocks , set in iron frames of proper strength, or such other fireproof material and form of construction as in the opinion of the Building Inspector may be equally as good. When extending to the roof or topmost story the walls of the same shall extend at least three feet above the roof , and, be crowned with a skylight the same as required for elevators . All openings in the inclosure walls or construction shall be provided with self closing doors . When the shaft does not extend to the floor level of the cellar or lowest story, the bottom of the shaft shall be constructed of fireproof material. When the shaft does not extend through the top story, and does not extend through more than three stories, the top of the shaft shall be also constructed of fireproof material. when the shaft extends through more than three stories , it shall be carried above the roof, as before provided. SCREEN UNDER ELEVATOR SHEAVES. SECTION 7-4. Immediately under the sheaves at the top of every elevator shaft in any building there shall _ be provided and. placed a substantial grating or screen of iron or steel,of such construction as shall be ap- proved by the Building Inspector. i 1 CHAPTER X1V. STAIRS AND FIRE ESCAPES STAIRS, Number regulated by Area of Building. 79 SECTION ". In any building hereafter erected to be used as an office building, store , factory, hotel, lodging house or school, covering a lot area exceeding twenty-five hundred square feet and not exceeding five thousand square feet , there shall be provided at least two continuous lines of stairs re- mote from each other; and every such building shall have at least one continuous line of stairs for oeach five thousand square feet of lot area covered, part, thereof , in excess of that required for five thousand square feet all-ea,--- ----_ _ _ when any such building covers an area of lot greater than fifteen thousand square feet , the number as of stairs shall be increased proportionately, will meet with the approval of the Building Inspec- tor. The width of the stairs required by this section shall in no case be less than three feet six inches in the clear between hand-rails or between the hand- ra.il. and. the inclosed side of the stairs , and shall be increased in width when in the opinion of the Bui an increased forlthegsafetycofr width the occupants , uptoifivecfeet.�y All such stairs shall have treads of uniform width and risers of uniform height, throughout in each flight, and the risers shall be not more than eight inches in height and the treads exclusive of nosings not less than ten inches. Each flight of stairs in every story which ex- ceeds a height of fourteen feet in the clear shall have a. proper landing introduced, and.- se.id landing shall be placed at the central portion thereof if the stairs be a straight run. The stairs shall be provided with 'proper banistersor railings and hand- rails , and. kept in grepair. Y0 ENGINEERS STATIONARY LADDERS. SECTION rf'�B. Every building in which boilers or machinery are placed in the cellar or lowest story, shall have stationary iron ladders or stairs from such story leading direct to a manhold above on the sidewalk or other outside exit. SLATE AND STONE TREADS OF STAIRS TO BF SUPPORTED. g/ SECTION r*- In all buildings hereafter erected where the treads and landings of iron stairs are of slate, mable or other stone, there lendinhall bef oraced theirientire length under- neath each tread and each g and width, a wrought-iron or steel plate made solid or having openings not exceeding four inches square in same, of adequate strengths but in no case less than one-eighth of an inch in thickness and in each and every case securely fast y whole or in past occupied or used as a school or place of instruction or assembly, shall be pro- vided with such good and sufficient fire escapes , stairways or other means of egress in case of fire, at least one of which shall be an outside iron fire .escape, as shall be directed by the Chief of the fire department, CONSTRUCTION OF FIRE' ESCAPES. i l SECTION &2. Fire escapes on the outside of buildings may project nct more than four feet be- yond the building line and shall consist of open iron balconies and stairways , the latter to be placed at an angle of not more than sixty degrees with steps not less than six inches in width, and twenty inches in length, and with a rise of not more then nine inches . The balcony on the top floor shall be provided with a goose-neck ladder leading from said balcony to and above the roof. The balconies shall be not less than three feet in width,. and placed where directed by the Chief of the Fire Department, at each story above the ground floor. They shall be below and not more than one foot below the window sills and extend in front of - and not less than nine inches be.!ond each window. There shall be a landing not less than twenty-four Inches square at the head and foot of each stairway. .The stairways opening on each platf or Ohall be of a size p,ufficient to provide clear headway. The floors of balconies shall be of wrought-iron or steel slats not less than one and a half (1-21) inches by three-eighths (3/8) of an inch, placed not more than one and. one-quarter (14) inches apart, and well secured and riveted to iron battens one and a half (1-23 ) inches b-v three-eighths (3/8) of an inch, not over three feet apart and riveted at the inter- sections . The openings for stairways in all baleo- nies shall be not less than twenty-one (21 ) inches wide and thirty-six (36) inches long, and such open- ings shall have no covers of any kind. The platforms of balconies shall be constructed and. erected. safely to sustain in all their parts a safe load at a ratio of four to one , of not less than eighty (80 ) pounds per square foot of surface. The outside top rail shall extend around the en- tire length of the platform and in a1]_ cases shall go through the wall at each end, and. be properly se- cured by nuts and four-inch square washers at least three-eighths (3/8) of an inch thick, and no top rail shall be connected at angles by cast iron. The top rail of h .lc,otl_'��s � .1:�_ o ters inches by one-half inch of wrought iron, or one and a half inch angle iron, one-quarter inch thick. The bottom rails shall. be one and one-half inches by three-eighths of an inch wrought-iron or steel , or one and a half inch angle iron, one inch thick, well anchored into the wall. The standards of filling-in bars shall be not less than one-half i inch round or square wrought-iron or steel , well I r the strings with bolts or rivets , or to both the strings and.- risers if the treads be more than three end one-half (31) feet long, so that said plates shall in themselves furnish a safe passage- way independent of the slate , marble or other stone placed thereon. If the stairs are constructed of other fire- proof material than iron, and the slate, marble or other stone treads and landings are each solidly supported for their entire length and width by the materials composing such stairs , iron support plates shall not be required. STAIR HALLWAY INCLOSURES �v SECTION Be. In all stores, warehouses and factor- ies and in all other buildings over four stories in height, the staircase halls shall be inclosed with suitable walls of brick or with burnt-clay blocks set in iron. frames or such other fireproof materials and forms of construction as may be approved by the Building Inspector, except that open stairs may be permitted from the first to the second floor for ornamental effect. Said walls or construction shall be continuous and extend at least three(3) feet above the roof. The roof over the stair hall inclo ure ,shall be covered with a metal and glass skylight at least three eighths (3/6) of the area of the in- closure and constructed and glazed as required for skylights over elevator inclosures. All door open- ings in such stair hell inclosures shall be provided with self-closing fireproof doors and frames , and all window openings shall have window frames of metal , and the window sash shall be fixed of metal and glazed with wired glass , but no one pane shall exceed seven hundred and twenty square inches in size. At least one of such inclosed stair halls in each of said buildings shall have a like connecting inclosure hallway in the first story and. extend to the street, and all door or window openings in the same shall be provided with doors and windows as provided f or openings in the stair hall inclosures. Escalators , or endless revolving stairs, shall be deemed stairs and comply with all the requirements contained in this See+,-ibn for the enclosure of stairs . Any hotel building having an area requiring more than one stairway shall have at least one such con- tinuous stairway inclosed in the manner described in this Section. MEANS OF EGRESS IN CASE OF FIRE. 3 SEC MI ON Every apartment house , tenement house or dwelling house occupied by orl ] t to be occupied by three or more families , every building already erected, or that may be hereafter erected, more than two stories in height, occupied and used as:a hotel ,• apartment-hotel , boarding or lodging house, factory, mill , manufactory or workshop, hospital, asylum or institution for the care or treatment of individuals , store , workroom or offices , and every building in ............ . . . whose use same is provided, to be notifiedp verbally or in writing, to remove and keep the same clear. If said notice shall not be compliedwith by the removal, forthwith, of such incumbrances , and keeping aid fire escape, balcony or stairway free from inqlumbrance , then it shall be the duty cfY said commandiXig officer to apply to the %W4.Woowatej or a warrant for the ar- rest of the occupant or ecupants of the said premis- ' � ' es or apartment of which the fire escape forms a part, and the ssi d parties shall be brought before the. said as for a misdemeanor; and, on conviction �' ..,• _ the occupant or occupants o,f ill em i ises or apart- �G�� . ment shall be fined not, rt Odollars f or each offense. or--ma-Y-t '~1_4Pj:itD ed i bt-tea- days:A, �. SCUTTLE LADDERS. SECTION All buildings requiring fire escapes shall have stationary iron ladders leading to the scuttle opening in the roof thereof, and all scuttles and ladders shall be kept so as to be ready for use at all times . If a bulkhead is used in place of a scuttle , it shall have stairs with sufficient guard or hand-rail leading to the roof. In case the build- ing shall be occupied by more than one family, the door in the bulkhead or any scuttle shall at no time be locked, but may be fastened on the inside by mova- ble bolts :or hooks. � 1 riveted to the top and bottom rails and platform frames . Such standards or filling-in bars shall be securely braced' by outside brackets at suitable intervals and shall be placed not more than six inches from the centers; the height of railings shall in no case be less than two feet nine inches. The s-tairways shall be constructed and erected f)al ly tq sustain in all their parts a safe load at a ratio of f olir to one or not less than one hundred pounds per ttep, with the exception of the tread, which must safely sustain at said ratio.'a load of two hundred pounds . The treads shall be flat open treads not less than six inches wide and with a rise of not more than nine inches . The stairs shall be not less than twenty inches wide. The strings shall be not less than three- inch channels of iron or steel, or other shape equally 'strong,snd shall rest upon and be fastened to a bracket , which shall be fastened through the wall as hereinafter provided. The strings shall be securely fastened to the balcony at the top.,and the steps in all cases shall be double-riveted or bolted to the strings ., The stairs shall have three-quarter inch hand-rails Of wrought-iron, well braced. The brackets shall be not less than one-half inch by one and three-quarters (1f) inches , wrou ht iron placed edgewise, or one and three quarters inches inches angle iron, one-quarter inch thick, well braced; they shall be not more than four feet apart, and shall be braced by means of not less than three-quarters (3/4) of an inch square wrought-iron, andshall extend two- thirds of the width of the respective balconies or brackets. The brackets shall go through the wall and be turned down three (3) inches or be properly secured by nuts and four-inch square washers at least three- eighths (3/8) bf an inch thick. On new buildings the brackets shall be set as the walls are being built. When brackets are put on buildings already erected, the part going through the wall shall be not less than one inch in diameter, with screw nuts and wash- ers not less than five inches square and one half inch thick. A proper drop ladder shall be required from the lower balcony when the floor of such balcony is more than fourteen feet above the sidewalk or ground. PAINTING OF FIRE ESCAPES SECTION ,( . .rill parts of such fire escapes shall receive not less than two coats of paint, one in the shop and one after erection, and the owner or owners of any building upon which a fire escape is, erected shall keep the same in good repair and properly painted. 0/INcUMBRANCES ON FIRE ESCAPES. SECTION (. No person shall at any time place any incumbrances of any kind whatsoever before or upon any fire escape,balcony or stpirway. It shall be the duty of every fireman and polieman who shall discover any fire escape, balcony or stairway of any fire escape incumbered in any way, forthwith t'o report the same to the commanding officer of his coftipany or precinct and such commanding officer shall forthwith cause the occupant of the premises or apartment to which said fire escape, balcony or stairway is attached, or for r . CHAPTER XV. MISCF,LLANEOUS PROVISIONS. BRICK BUILDINGS OU`T'SIDE OF FIRE LIMITS. SECTION 118£. Outside of the fire limits , when any brick, stone or concrete building is to be erected, of a class that could, under this Code, be construct- ed of wood, the Building Inspector is hereby authoriz- ed and directed to allow reasonable modifications of this Code relating to brick buildings , in considera- tion of incombustible material being used for walls instead of wood. CORNICES. P SECTION 4M. All cornices , inclusive of those on show windows and gutters , hereafter placed on build- ings , shall be of soma fireproof material well secur- ed-with iron anchors , 'independent of any woodworV. No cornice shall extend more than five feet above the highest point of the roof beams . In all cases the wall shall be carried to the top of the cornice and in the case of party walls shall extend above the planking of the cornice and be coped. All exterior wooden cornices that maybe or may become unsafe or rotten or may become damaged from any cause to the extent of fifty percent of their value, shall be taken down and if replaced, shall be constructed of fireproof material. BULKHEADS. SECTION �. Bulkheads used as enclosures for D tanks , the machinery of elevators and all other bulk- heads or other structures , on buildings not over four stories in height, may be constructed of wood covered with metal , provided that their height shall not exceed ten (10 ) feet nor their superficial area 10 percent of the area of the building. When any such bulkhead is within three feet of a party or division fire wall , such party or division fire wall shall be carried up three feet higher than such structure for a distance of three feet to either side. Bulkheads on buildings over four stories in height shall be en- tirely of fireproof material. AREAWAYS AND VAULTS. SECTION 6/ All areaways shall be properly pro- tected with suitable railings or be covered over. When the space under a sidewalk is utilized, proper retaining walls shall be built and. the side,, end or party walls of such building shall extend under the sidewalk to such wall and the whole shall be roofed over with incombustible materials . DUCTS FOR PIPES. SECTION �. All ducts for pipes, walls and sides wher ith similar purposes shall be inclosed on fireproof material and properly fire-stopped at each floor. If the area of such duct exceeds four square feet it shall be classed as a shaft and be construct- ed in accordance with the following section. LIGHT AND VENT SHAFTS. 9j r SECTION & . In every building hereafter erected or altered, all the walls or partitions forming ex- G..j i ROOFS Section 4W�94 All buildings except dwellins, and buiddings not e..oeeciing two and and half stories or 35ft in height or 2,500 square feet in area, and not used for factories, rehouses, or mercllantile purposes, and all buildis within the fire limits shall be covered with material k, cement, of approved standard quality, such as bric tile , slate, high grade tin, asphalt composition shingles, asbestos shingles, felt or burlap asphalt roll roofing as as a grade weighing 55 pounds or more per 100 square feet, j built up roofing, with gravel or slag surface , built �p asbestos or asphalt roofing, or with such other incombustible material as the building inspeotor may authorize. The sides and rein ofdormer windows shall be protected the same as he Prescribed Buildings e cept in the foregoing paragraph may be covered with any fi%-e resisting composition shingles or �-rp uncle r -thelt3eady .roofing -. r�r` is of a grade w�hicli wig.' not ranit lower t r �n 01'ss rwr test specifications of he Uati01 , j'o `i;. of4roodeshinUndelesitexs , built up roofing, o ~ { 'r��.<<,,� a The thickness of shingles measured at tine butt bein, not cy less than 2 inches. The minimum exposure of wood shinles to the weather shall be; - 16 inch shingles On roofs 1/3 pitch or more 5, inehes ' 18 inch shingles 5 inches 24 inch shingles 7 inches On roofs of less than 1/3 pitch 16 inch shingles 4� inches 18 inch shingles 42 inches 24 inch shingles 6 inches Shingles to be laid with1brolien joints or side lap not less than one and on© half (threenconsecutivencou-reess all nails directly over each other on any to be covered. First course at eaves to be laidetwo p w- Shingles t_� be nailed with three s� P penny_, oxidized or galvanifromn shingle 5/8 to 3/4 inc sides.lth two nails to e h fore•-- Y � If stained, shingles must be dry+before di- Ang, and dipped to at least 8 inches :from the butt. i terior light and vent shafts shall be built of brick, except that when the area of any such shaft does not exceed twenty-five square feet the enclos- ing walls. or partitions may be of such other fire- proof materials as may be approved by the Building Inspector. The walls of a7.1 light or vent shafts shall be carried up not less than two feet above the roof and shall be coped as other walls. All openings into such shafts shall be provided with fire-proof doors and shutters or wire glass windows in metal frames. y Z/ ROOFS ' SECTION b"q. Eve building, and the tops a d sides of ever ''dorm window thereon within t city limits , Mall a covered and oofed wit tile, slate, tin, co o ition roll roo, ng, eomp4� tion shingle, built aspli.alt, grav `•�eompo $ i�t 1 or such other inco stib�,e rooP1 g a thug I ding � Inspector may u�,h` ize Not. Ling in th seetion shall be con rued g prohib' ting the Oairing_ Of any shingl room, p owiding such reps\ sJper year do not ex q ed t enty five percent Of ,, he cost of a new roof,' q� SKYLIGHTS AND FLOOR LIGHTS SECTION W. The term "skylight" shall be taken to mean and include flat, hipped, lantern, monitor, turret, dome, vertical or pitched saw-toothed con- structions , and all other covers placed over open- ings on roofs for the admission of `light. All sky- lights placed on or in any building shall have the frames Instructed of metal, and, except as otherwise provided in this Code, over elevators , stairs , dumb- waiter shafts and theater stage roofs , shall be glazed with wired glass not less than one-garter inch thick, or with glass protected with wire screens of not less than No. 12 galvanized wire, not more than one quarter inch mesh and securely fastened six inches above the glass . All openings in floors for transmission of light to floors below shall be covered over with floor lights constructed of metal frames and bars , the >; glass in no case to be less than three quarters of an inch in thickness. If glass in same measures more than sixteen squareLncyihes , the glass shall be provided with strong wire netting either within or under the same, /SHEATHING AND WAINSCOTING. SECTION 71. No wall or ceiling in any building hereafter erected other than buildings or portions Df buildings occupied exclusively for dwelling or club purposes , shall be covered with wood sheathing or other combustible material. Wooden wainscoting not to exceed six feet in height, however, may be used if filled solidly at the back with incombusti- ble material. /j, f -I r FIRE-STOPS q� SECTION 74 • All stud walls , partitions , furrings , stair carriages and spaces between joists in all buildings hereafter erected shall be effectively fire-stopped in e. manner complete- ly to cutt off communication. i CI3APTER X'V1.. FIRE APPLIANCFS AND FIREPROOF DOORS AND SHUTTERS j STANDPIPES. SECTION 84, In every existing building exceeding fifty-five (55) and not over one hundred (100) feet in height, unless already provided with a three-inch or larger standpipe, and in all buildings hereafter erected exceeding fifty five (55) and not exceeding one hundred (100 ) feet in height, there shall be pro- vided a vertical standpipe of not less than four inch es in diameter. In every existing building exceeding one hundred (100) feet in height, unless already provided with a four-inch or larger standpipe, and in all buildings hereafter erected exceeding one hundred feet in height there shall be provided a vertical standpipe of nqt 1„ss than six inches in diameter. These standpipes shall be of wrought-iron or steel galvanized, and to- gether with fittings and cpnneetions , shall be of such strength as safely to withstand at least three hundred pounds of water pressure to the square inch when installed and ready for service; also to stand such a test without leaking at joints , valves or fit- tings. Standpipes shall be located within fireproof stair- way inclosures where the latter are of such construc- tion , and as near stairways as possible where they are not so inclosed. In buildings exceeding one hundred (100) 0eet street deep fronting on two or more streets , on a and alley, there shall be a standpipe at each end of j building., and in large area buildings there shall be one standpipe at each stairway, or within each stair- way inelnsure. Where more than one standpipe is re- quired in a building they shall be connected at their base by pipes of size equal to that of the largest I' standpipes , so that water from any source will supply all the standpipes. Standpipes shall extend from the cellar to and through the roof, with a hose connection located from four to six feet above the floor level , fitted with 9 proved straightway composition gate valve in each { story, including cellar, and a hose connection provided above the roof with the valve controlling latter, lo- cated in the standpipe under the roof and arranged f' to be operated both from above and below the roof. A suitable three-quarter inch drain pipe and valve shall I, be provided under the roof for each roof connection. Hose sufficient to reach to all parts of the floor shall be attached to each outlet in the building and hose for roof-hydrant matt be placed .on rack in top floor near the scuttle leading to the roof. Hose shall 1) or two and five-eights (2-5/8) be two end one-4alf (2 Z inches in diameter, in fifty-foot lengths , and provid- y i dp ed with standard couplings at each in useall couplings to be of same hose thread as that department. Lose to be approved linen, cotton rubber lined or rubber made under specifications recommended by the National Board of Fire Underwriters . Each line of hose shall be provided with washers at both ends ,and be fitted with pla�r pipe or nozzle of Underwriter pattern, having handles at the base and with discharge outlet not less than three-quarters (4) inch in diam- eter. One spaxfiner to �be located at each hose connec- tion throughout the building. All standpipes shall be provided with a Siamese steamer connection, located on the outside of the ad where building hbout one foot above the curb , alconnection a building fronts on two or more streetss , _ Pipe from to be provided on each street front. Inlet p' P steamer connection to standpipe to be not less teaa on the diameter of the largest standpipe. The the Siamese connection �ai uniform with that used by the fire department. aesesteaerconnection ,+Y+� and shall be provided with check valves in the sbbstantial caps provided, to protect thread on the connection. The steamer connection fitting should be adjusted looking down at an angle of forty-five de- grees. A suitable ironnear steamer traised connecti__onEra.3l be secured to the wall read- ing "To standpipes" - In each connecting Pipe just in sideof the btill'd- ing in 8. horizontal section shall be placed a. straight- way check valve , but not <. gate valve. A drip pipe with valve to sou shall. be nectionplaced properlyween to draindf.r�iscl� valve p.nc? steamer con P section to prevent freezing. in addition to the provision made for steamer con- nections to standpipes, the water sPy may sa.y be from tic city water where pressure i fire-pumP of five hundred g •allonslor more capacity per minute, elevated thouskndr steel ga]_lonspce.pa.cityssure tank of not less than five In all buildings coming'. under these regulstions as too height,avhich are occupied for living or sleeping purposes , such as hotels , lodging houses , hose least and asylums , the standpipe system ltdescribed. one of the• s.pproved -s.utoma.tic supplies before 7�here a standpipe is connected t tank, there all section be a straightway check valve in a horizontal of pipe between the first hose outlet in connecting pipe and tank, and said tank must be filled by rate pipe,•and not through the standpipe ; and. where the water in such tank shag l3so extendused. from the house bottomlOf the house supply pipe �- less the tank to such a. height a•llonsl Of for fire than thirty-five hundserve no red ns 3 to stand- purposes . ,here Pumps constituting a suPP y _1 pipes are located. in the lowest story of a build- ing, they shall be placed not less than two feet above the floor level, and boilers upon which pumps depend for steam shall be arranged so that flooding of fires under same will be impossible. In every building exceeding one hundred (100 ) feet in height, at least one passenger elevator shall be kept in readiness for inmedia.te use by the fire de- partment during all hours of the night end d.a.y, includ- ing holidays end Sundays - AUYILIARY FIRE APPLIANCES. 99 SECTION &P. All existing buildings , and those here- after erected, exceeding one hundred (100 ) feet in height, shall be provided with fire extinguishers , hooks , axes and pails , as may be required by the Chief of the fire department; all of said. Rpparatus to con- form in design to those in use by the fire department. SPRINKLER PIPES IN BASEMT"'TS AND CELLARS OF MP;RCANTILI, AND MANUFACTURING BUILDINGS. SECTION a&- In all future buildings to be used or ocepied for mercantile and manufacturing purposes , and in all existing buildings so used or occupied which are not fire-proof, there shall be provided, in addition to said standpipe or standpipes, an approved. system of automatic sprinklers placed at the ceiling o each story belor the first or grade floor and. exte g to the full depth and breadth of the building. Existing buildings which are required to install automptic of pas- sprinklers shall have three years from date ith such sage of this ordinance in which to comply provisions . Buildings of large area, which are oeupied for mer- cantile or manufacturing purposes , when located within a congested district, forming,, in the opinion of the Bajilding Inspector or Chief of fire department, "Con- flagration Breeders ,it 'shall be protected throughout the entire building with automatic sprinklers. The Ppi e sizes and spacing of heads for said sprink- ler system shall conform to the schedule and rbLIes recommended by the National Board of Fire Underwriters , which are hereby made a. pt�.rt of the requirements of this Code. Said sprinkler pipes shall be connected with a. pipe of not less than four inches in diameter leading to the outside of building, and there provided with . an, approved Siamese steamer connection, the lbotter to be installed under requirements set forth in this section., and. to be under the control and for the use of the fire department. A suitable iron plate with raised letters shall be securely attached to the wall near said steamer con- nection, reading "Cellar Sprinklers" where sprink- lers are installed in cellars only, and reading Auto- matic Sprinklers" where the entire building is pro- tected. i 1 C11APTER XVX:L­-� PUBLIC BUILDINGS, THEATERS, and PLACES OF ASSEMBLAGE PUBLIC BUILDINGS SECTION 14t. In all public buildings or build- ings of public character, such as churches , theaters , public halls , and other buildings used or intended to be used for purposes of public assembly, amusement or instruction, and including department stores and other business and manufacturing buildings where large num- bers of people are congregated, the halls, doors , stairways , seats ,ppssageways and aisles , and all light- ing and heating appliances and apparatus, shall be ar- ranged as the chief of the fire department and Build- ing Inspector shall direct to facilitate egress in cases of fire or accident, and to afford the requisite and proper accommodation for the public protection in such cases. All aisles and passageways in said bMIdings shall be kept free from camp-stools, chairs , sofas and other obstructions , and no person other than an employe or policeman or fireman shall be allowed to stand in or occupy any of said aisles or passage-ways , dur- ing any perf ormance ,�ervice , exhibition, lecture, concert ball or any public assemblage. The chief of the fire department and Building in- spector may at any time serve a written or printed notice upon the owner, lessee or manager of any of said buildings , directing any act or thing to be done or provided in or about the said buildings and the several appliances therewith connected, such as halls; doors , stairs , windows , seats , aisles, fire-walls , fire apparatus atus and fire escapes , as they may deem p P necessary. EXISTING THEATERS. /03 SECTION 194. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to authorize or require any other altera- tions to theaters existing prior to the date of this Code than are specified in the preceding section. THEATERS AND PLACES OF, PUBLIC AMUSF'MMMT. Every theater or opera house here SECTION Imo• y' after erected, or other building intended to be used or altered to be used for theatrical or operatic pur- poses , or for public resort or entertainments, e any kind, for the accommodation of more than three hun- dred persons , shall be built to comply with the re- quirements of this section. I II No building,-hsreinbef ore descry-bed shall be opened to the public for theatrical or operatic purposes or for public entertainments of any kind, until the Building Inspector shall have approved the same in writing as conforming to the requirements of this sec- tion, nor until the chief of the fire department shall have certified in writing that all. the ap- pliances for the extinguishing of fire or guarding against the same conform to this Code and. are in a complete and satisfactory working condition. Every such building shall have at least one front on the street and in such front there shall be a suit- able means of. entranee and exit for the audience. In addition to the aforesaid entrances and exits on the street, there shall be reserved for service in case of an emergency an open court or space on the side not bordering on the street, where said building is located on a corner lot; and on both sides of said building where there is_ ut one frontage on the street. The width of such openLcourt or courts shall be not less than seven feet where the seating capacity does not exceed one thousand people, exceeding one thousand and not more than eighteen hundred people, eight feet in width, and exceedingeighteen hundred people , ten feet in width. Said open court or courts shall be- gin on a line with or near the proscenium wall and shall extend the length of the auditorium proper to or near the wall separating the same from the entrance lobby or vestibule. A separate and, distinct corridor shall continue to the street, from each open court, through such superstructure as may be built on the ' street side of the auditorium, with continuous walls of brick or fireproof materiels on each side the entire length of said corridor or corridors , and the ceil- ings and floors shall be fireproof. Said corridor or corridors shall no . be reduced in width to more than three feet less than the width of the open court or courts , and there shall be no projection in the same; the outbr openings to be provided with doors or gates opening toward the street. During the performance the doors or gates in the corridors shall be kept open by proper fastenings ; at other times they may be clos- ed and fastened by movable bolts or latches. The said open courts and corridors shall not be used for storage purposes , or for any purpose whatever except for exit and entrance from and to the auditorium and stage, and must be kept free and clear during perform- ances. The level of said corridors shall be graded to the sidewalk and made flush therewith at all points at the street entrances. The entrance of the main front of the building shall not be on a. higher level from the sidewalk than four steps , but t,-as shall not preclude the use of an additional number of steps at the street entrances to the sides or read, of the building, as may be necessary to overcome the differences in grades of sidewalks. .,TO overcome any -difference of level in and between courts , corridors , lobbies, passages and aisles on the ground floor, gradients shall be employed of not over one foot in twelve feet, with no perpendicular rises . From the auditorium opening into the said open courts , or on the street, there shall be not less than two exits on each side in each tier from end includ- ing the parquet and each and every gallery. Each exit shall 'De at least five feet in width in the clear and provided with Fire-doors constructed as hereinbefore 7 - . in this Code described for fireproof doors . All of said doors shall open outward.ly,and shall be fastened with movable bolts , the bolts to be kept drawn during any performances . There shall be balconies not, less than four feet in width in the said open court or courts at each level or tier above the parquet, on each side of the auditorium, of sufficient length to embrace the two exits , and from said balconies there shall be stair- cases extending to the ground level, with a rise' of not over eight and one:-hik1f inches to a step and not less than nine inches tread, exclusive of the nosing. The staircase from the upper balcony to the next below shall be not -less than thirty inches in width in the clear, and from the fbalcony seating capacground three feet in width in the clear, ity of the auditorium is for one thousand people or less , three feet 'and six inches in the clear where exceeding one thousand and not more than eighteen hundred people. All the before mentioned balconies and staircases shall be constructed of wrought-iron or steel throughout, and be of ample strength to sus- tain the load to be carried by them. No workshop, storage or general property room shall be allowed above the auditorium or stage, or under same, or in any of the fly galleries , unless all of or shops are located in the rear of or at su ch rooms P � shall the side of the stage, and in such cases they s h 1 be separated from the stage by a brick wall not less than twelve inches in thickness and the openings lead- ing into said portions shall have self-closing stand- ard fire-doors. I No store or room contained in the building, offices , !I stores or apartments adjoining shall be let or used for carrying on any business dealing in any article or material dangerous to life, except under such condi- tions as may be prescribed by the fire department, under authority of a written permit issued by said department. No l licatinodging accommodations all be with thelowed in any part' of the building coi g auditorium. Interior walls built oomfthepentrance materials vestibule , separate the auditorium from and.' from any room or rooms over the same, also from any lobbies , corridors , refreshment or otrex° '-roams ; and in all such walls the window and. door frames and all sash and doors shall be fireproof; the window frames and sash shall be of metal of standard con- struction, and the sash made stationary, and glazed with wired glass not less than one-quarter inch in thickness , and-each pane or unit measuring not more than twenty-four by thirty inches ; the doors shall be made to close automatically and be of standard r r es e eke in eve P pattern. and m Y All stair cases for the use of the audience m aerials Of f it e r or P o brick f i h w walls � be clo sed d with approved by the Building Inspector, in the stories through which they pass , and the openings to said staircases from each tier shall be the full width of staircase. No door shall open immediately upon a flight of stairs,but a landing at least the width of 1 the door shall be provided between such stairs and r; such door. A fire-wall, built of brick, not less than twelve inches in any portion of same, shall separate the auditorium from the stage, and the same shall extend $fir at least four feet above the stage roof , or the au- at ditorium roof, if the latter be the higher, and shall l �oe Above the proscenium opening there shall N be a steel► girder of sufficient strength 'safelyto__ support th� load above, andrie Barrie shall"'be covered with fireproof material not less than four inches in thickness . The moulded frame around the proscenium opening shall be formed entirely of fireproof materials; if metal be used, the metal shall be filled in solid with non-combustible material and securely anchored to the wall with iron. The proscenium opening shall be provided with a fire- proof metal curtain or a curtain of asbestos or other fireproof material, approved by the Building Inspector overlapping the brick proscenium wall at each side not less than twelve inches , and. sliding vertically at each side within iron grooves or channels to a depth of not less than twelve inches , said grooves or chan- nels to be securely bolted to the brick wall and extend to a height of not less than three feet above the top of the curtain when raised to its full limit. Said curtain to be suspended or hung by steel cables pass- ing over wrought-iron or steel sheaves supported by wrought-iron brackets of sufficient strength and well braced; the brackets to be securely attached to the proscenium wall by through bolts, with nuts and washers on the opposite side of the wall. Said fire-proof curtain shall be raised at the commencement of each performance, lowered between each act , and lowered at the close of said perf ormanee,, -and be operated by ap- proved machinery for that purpose. If the proscenium curtain be. of asbestos , that .material shall be rein- f'orced with wire or wire spin' in the asbestos , and at. the botto of the curtain shall be placed a rigid. me- tallic rol or bar f proper weight, securely fastened to the curtain andovered over with like material as the curtain itself, to carry down the curtain by the weight of the said rod or bar when released. The ex- cess weight of the curtain is to be overcome by a -check-rope of cotton or hemp, extending to the floor on both sides of the stage, so that the cutting or burning of which will release the curtain and- the same will then descend at its normal rate of speed. The proscenium curtain shall be placed at the nearest point at least three feet distant from the footli7gh.ts. No doorway or opening through the prescenium wall from the auditorium, shall be allowed above the level of the first floor, and all openings in such walls other than the proscenium opening, shall each have a self-closing standard fire-door, and all of the said doors shall be hung so a6 to be opened from either side of the wall at all times. There shall be one or more ventilators , constructed of metal or other incombustible material, near the center above the highest part of the stage in every theater, extending at least ten feet above the stage roof, and of a combined area equal to at least twelve peroentum of the area within the stage walls . The openings in every such ventilator shall be closed by „y f I valves , louvres , or° dP.Mrep ra , so coll,,n.terbala.nced as to open automatically, held closed by hempen or cotton cord, in which shall be inserted a fusible link at such a point as to be near the bottom of the ventila- tor. Such cord shall be fastened at the stage floor level near the prompter's desk, and so arranged that it can be easily reached. and severed in ease of nec- essity. All that portion of the stage not comprised in the working of scenery, traps and other mechanical apparatus , for the presentation of a. scene , usually equal to the width of the proscenium opening, shall be built of steel beams filled in between with fire- proof material, and all girders for the support of said beams shall be of wrought-iron or rolled steel. The fly-galleries and tie-galleries entire, in- eluding pin-rails , shall be constructed of steel andthe floors of said galleries shall be composed of c;,,ce1. �,r;a.rr�; filled in with fireproof ma.teria.ls , and. no wood boards or sleepers shall be used as covering over beams , but the said floors shall be entirely fireproof . The gridiron. or rigging loft shall have a. lattice iron floor, and. be readily accessible by iron stair- wayS • All stage scenery, curtains and decorations made of combustible material, and all woodwork on or about the stage , shall be painted or saturated. with some non- combustible material , or otherwise rendered safe against fire, and the finishing coats of pa.ind�'applied to all woodwork throughout the entire building shall be of such kind. as will resist fire to the satisfaction of the Building Inspector. None of the walls or ceilings shall be covered with wood sheathing, wood wainscoting, wood furring, canvas , or any combustible material, and all lathing , whenever used, shall be wire or other metal on metal studding. Actors ' dressing rooms shall not be placed on the stage , under the stage , over the stage , on the fly- galleries , ndr under the auditorium, but shall be plac- ed in a. separate section for that purpose . The walls separating said section containing the actors' dressing rooms from the stage shall be not less than twelve inches in thickness , and. the openings therefrom to stage shall be protected with standard elf-closing fire-doors . The partitions dividing the dressing rooms , together with the partitions every passageway from the some to the stage, and all other partitions on or about the sides of the stage , or fireproof por- tion thereof , shall be constructed of fireproof mater- ial not less than four inches in thickness , approved by the Building Inspector. All doors in any of said par- titions shall be standard fire-doors . All dressing rooms shall have an independent exit leading directly 1 into a. court or street, and shall be ventilated by windows in the external wall. All shelving and cuipboa.rd.s J ' in each and every dressing room, property room or other storage rooms shall be constructed of metal, slate or some fireproof material. None of the windows in outside walls shall have fixed sashes , fixed iron grills or bars; these may be arranged to hinge and lock, but must be left unlocked during performances . All seats in the auditorium excepting those con- tained in boxes shall be not less than thirty-two in- ches from back to back, measured in 8. horizontal di- rection, and firmly secured to the floor. No seat in the auditorium shall have more than six seats inter- vening between it and the aisle, on either side. No stool or seat shall be placed in any aisle. All platforms in galleries formed to receive the seats shall be not more than twenty-four inches in height of riser, nor less than thirty-two inches in width of platform. All aisles on the respective floors in the audi- torium, having seats on both sides of same , shall be not less than three feet wide where they begin, and shall be increased in width toward. the exits in the ratio of one and one-half inches to five running feet. Aisles having seats on one side only shall be not less than two feet six inches wide at their beginning, and increased in width in the some proportion as aisles having seats on both sides. The aggregate .capaeity- of the foyers , lobbies , corridors , passages and rooms foxy-the use of the aud.i- ence, not including aisle space between seats , shall on each floor or gallery be sufficient to contain the entire number to be accommodated on said floor or gal- lery, in the ratio of one hundred and fifty superficial feet of floor room for every one hundred persons . Gradients or inclined planes shall be employed in- stead of steps where possible to overcome slight dif- ferences of level in or between aisles , corridors and passages . Doorways of exit or entrance for the use of the public shall be not less than five feet in width, not including the fire exit doorways , and for every addi- tional one hundred persons or fraction thereof in ex- cess of five hundred., to be accommodated, an aggregate of twenty inches additional exit width must be provided. All doors of exit or entrance shall open outwardly and be hung to swing in such a manner as not to become an obstruction in the passage or corridor, and no such doors shall_ be closed and locked when the building is open to the public. Distinct and separate places of exit and entrance shall be provided for each gallery above the first gallery. No passage leading to any stairway communicating with an entrance or exit, not including fire exits , shall be less than four feet in width in any past thereof. No stairways from galleries shall. be less than four 1 feet in width. There accommodation is provided in a gallery for more than one hundred people, there shall be at least two stairs extending to the ground, ar- z raneed on opposite sires of fifty people or fraction jereof in excess of the first one hundred to be accommodated, six inches sla.,�Jl be added. to the widtho proportionately divided between the two flights. The i!,idth of all stairs shall be measured in the cle-a-' In no case shall the risers of any stair- exceed seven and, a half inches in height, nor shall the treads , exclusive of nosings , be less than ten and one- half inches wide in straight stairs . All treads shall f uniform width, nd risers of uniform height throughout and each flight. No circular or winding stairs or the use of the public shall be permitted.. At least two independent direct, exterior outlets shall be provided for the service of the stage and shall be . located on the opposite sides of same. When straight stairs return directly on themselves ., a landing of the full width of both flights, without any steps , shall be provided. The outer line of landings shall be curved to a radius of not less than two feet, to avoid square angles . Stairs turning at an angle shall have a properlanding without winders introduced at said turn. In- stairs ) when two side flights connect with one main flight , no winders shall be introduced, and the width of the main flit shall be at least equal to the aggregate width of the side flights . All stairs shall have proper landings intro- duced at corvenient distances . All inclosed staircases shall have, on both sides , strong hand-rails firmly secured to the wall about three inches distant therefrom and about three feet above the stairs , but staid hand-rails shall not run on level platforms.andlandings -where the same are of greater length than the width of the stairs . Every steam boiler which may be required for heat- ing or other purposes shall be located outside . of the building , either under the sidewalk or in an extension but in no case under or within any portion of the building, used for theatrical purposes , andthe space allotted to the same shall be inclosed by wallls of masonry on all sides , and the ceiling of such space be constructed of fireproof materials . All doorways in said walls connecting with the building shall have standard automatic sliding fire-doors . No floor register for heating, ventilating or other purposes shall be permitted. No coil. or radiator shall be placed in any aisle or passageway used as an exit, but all said coils and radiators shall be placed in recesses formed in the wall or partition to receive same. All supply, return or hxhaust pipes shall be properly incased where passing through floors or near -woodwork. t ' Standpipes of not less than f our inches in diameter % sha.11. .be provided with hose connections and sufficient quantity of approved two and one-half inch linen, co•Lton rubber lined or rubber hose , but not less than fifty feet , with nozzle attached, as folloars : one- on each side of the auditorium in each tier, one on each side of the stage in each tier, one within ten feet of the door of the property room, one within ten. feet of the door of the carpenter' s shop and scenery storage room. All such standpipes and hose connections shall be kepi; clear of obstructions . Said standpipes shall receive their supply of water from a. six inch city connection. All standpipes shall be provided with a Siamese steamer connection, located on the outside of the building about one foot above the curb level , and. where a build- ing fronts on two or more streets , a connection to be pro- vided on each street front. Inlet pipe from steamer con- nection to standpipe to be not less than the diameter of the largest standpipe. The thread on the Siamese connec- tion shall be uniform with that used by the fire department. Siamese steamer connections shall be provided with check valves in the "Y" and substantial caps provided to protect thread on the connection. The steamer connection fitting should be adjusted looking down at, an angle of forty-five degrees . A suitable iron plate with raised letters shall be secured to the wall near steamer connection, reading "To standpipes ." In each connecting pipe just inside of the building, in a horizontal section shall be placed a straightway check valve , but not a gate valve. A drip pipe with valve to same shall be placed between said check valve and steam- er connection to properly drain this section to prevent freezing. Pipes shall be fitted with approved straightway com- position gate valves at hose outlets , and. the thread of all connections shall be uniform with that in use by the fire department. Two spanners shall be located at each hose connection. Pipes shall be kept constantly filled with water and be ready for immediate use at all times . A system of automatic sprinklers , approved by the chief of the Fire Department, and independent from the standpipe equipment, shall. be installed throughout the en- tire stage section of the theater; this is to include under roof , under fly galleries , under the stage, in all dressing rooms , in all workshops , property and all other rooms and passageways. The sprinklers shall. be supplied with water from six inch city main producing 25# on high line, and provided with a Siamese steamer connection as re- quired for the standpipes . The location and spacing of sprinkler heads and the schedule of pipe sizes shall conform to the standard recommended by the National Board of Fire Underwriters , which is hereby made a part of the requirements of this code. kept There shall be k t in readiness for immediate use, one forty-gallon cask filled with water and six fire pails on each side of the stage, under the stage, on each fly gallery, and a supply of fire pails in property and other storerooms and in each workshop; such casks and buckets shall be paint- ed red and lettered "For Fire Pusposes Only." There shall also be provided six three-gallon approved chemical fire ex- tinguishers ,at least four axes, two twenty-foot hooks , two fifteen-foot hooks and two ten-foot hooks , two fifteen-foot t appliances as may- o o t ber quiredbythehe s d chief ofthecfiteh h oter a de- partment. * R . a r Every portion of the building devoted to the uses or acconunodations of the public , also all out- lets leading to the streets, and including the open courts and corridors , shall be well and properly lighted during every performance, and the same shall remain lighted until the entire audience has left the premises. There shall be one light within a red globe or lantern placed over each exit opening, on the audi- torium side of the wall. Gas mains and electric light wires supplying the building shall have three inde- pendent connections , as follows: one for the stage;, one for the auditorium, excepting the exit lights therein, and the third for the halls , corridors , lob- hies , exit lights , including the exit lights in the auditorium,and such other portions of the building used by thb audience outside of the auditorium prop- er. All gas and electric lights in the halls , cor- ridors , lobbies and other portions of the building used by the audience, with the exception of the au- ditorium proper, but including the exit lights there- in, shall be controlled by two separate switches or valves , one to be located in the lobby and the other to be so located as to be operated from the outside of the building. Provision shall. be made for shut- ting off all gas at a point outside of the building. The footlights , when not electrie ,shall be guard- ed with strong wire guard and chain drawn taut, placed not less than two feet distant from said foot- lights and the trough containing said footlights shall be formed of and surrounded by fireproof Ma- terials. All border lights shall be constructed according to the best known methods , and. subject to the approv- al of the chief of the fire department, and shall be suspended for not less than ten feet therefrom by wire rope or iron chain. All stage lights shall have strong metal wire guards or screens , not less than eight inches in diameter so constructed that any material in contact therewith shall be out of reach of the flames of said stage lights , and, such guards. or fixtures shall in all cases be soldered to the fixture. The bridge calcium lights at the sides of proscenium shall be inclosed in front and on the side by galvan- ized iron so that no drop can come in contact with the lights. Electric calciums , so-called, are included in the above requirement. The standpipes, gas pipes , electrie .wires ,hose ,foot- lights and all apparatus for the extinguishing, of fire or guarding against the same, as in this Section spec- ified, shall be installed to the satisfaction of and be in charge of and under control of the chief of the , ',fire department, and the said chief is hereby directed to see that the arrangements in respect thereto are carried out, enforced and maintained. C i i 9h j'� .. 7�j � ��yy x 1 f. � t�� ti � /, .. ;< �, ,., .. ''� _.. �.... ��. i � � � _ � - - ' � �,��� �r, .> r ... � z - F ...�^�� i � ., F f' n � V ,._ ' S.a �_.: i �,,,. ! / ����`� ;,. r .. .. ,�. �,o �p ��. ��� l�, � �! _ � � ..�__ �'. � !'. `" � i '< i t -A.� `•� ,y, ����. ���ti F"k. r ' A diagram or plan of each tier, gallery or floor showing distinctly the exits therefrom, each occupy- ing a space not less than fifteen square inches , shall be printed in black lines in a legible manner on the program of the performance. Every exit shall have over the same on the inside the word "EXIT" , painted in legible letters not less than eight inches high. And the word "E1;IT" should I'De suitably i .lvrtin �.i-,ed or made of red glass and provided with a light behind it , so as plainly to show to the audience continuously during each and every performance, thus keeping the audience advised of the location of each and every ave- nue of escape in case of fire. i r CHAPTER XVI%T. UNSAFE BUILDINGS. SECTION 1-94&-. Every building, structure, or part thereof, which shall appear to the Building. Inspector to be dangerous , by reason of bad condition of walls , defective construction, overloaded floors , lack of guards against fire, or other causes , shall_ be held to be unsafe. The Building Inspector shall immediately notify the owner or lessee to cause the same to be made safe , and shall also affix a notice of the dangerous character of the structure in a conspicuous place on the exterior wall of such building,and no person shall remove or deface such notice so affixed. The owner or party having an interest in such unsafe building or structure being notified thereof in writing by the Building Inspector, shall immediately cause the same to be made safe. and secure, and if any such building shall be used for any purpose requiring a license there- for, the Mayor may revoke said license on neglect of the owner to comply with the notice served as herein provided. Where the public safety required immediate action, the Building Inspector may enter upon the prem- ises , with such assistance as may be necessary, and cause the said structure to be made secure or taken down without delay, at the expense of such owner or party interested. The Building Inspector is hereby given full power to order the fire department to assist in such work. r. r CHAPTER X1X. MISCELLANEOUS ORDINANCES. CIVIL PROCEEDINGS. SECTION u%�henever the Building Inspector is satisfied that any of the provisions of this Ordinance or any of the laws and ordinances in force in the city, applicable to the same subject matter, have been or are about to be violated in any respect, or that any order or direction made in pursuance of this Ordinance has not been complied with or is being disregarded, he shall apply to„the City Attorney for the purpose of instituting such civil proceedings as the said officer may think necessary and advisable , the same to be brought in the name of the city, provided however, that nothing in this section and no action taken thereunder shall be held to exclude any criminal proceedings which may be author- ized by this Ordinance or any of the laws and ordinances in force in this city, or exempt any one violating this Ordinance and said laws and ordinances from any penalty which may be incurred. SUITS BY CITY ATTORNEY. b SECTION ? The City Attorney is hereby authorized to institute any and all actions and proceedings , either legal or equitable , that may be appropriate or necessary for the enforcement of the provisions of this -Code, the same to be brought in the name of the city. INVALIDITY OF PART OF CODE. SECTION 1". The invalidity of any section of this Ordinance or of any provision therein, shall not invali- date any other section or provision thereof, but the in- valid part shall be separated by the court holding the same invalid from the remainder of the Ordinance, and the remainder shall be effective , and the invalidity of any provision in any section of this Ordinance in its application to existing buildings and structures shall not be held to affect the validity of such provision in its application to buildings and structures hereafter erected. BOARD OF APPEAL. �o q. SECTION 114. The Building Inspector shall pass on all questions arising under this Ordinance; in case of dissatisfaction with his decisions, e:Tcept in respect to insecure and unsafe buildings requiring immediate action, the question in dispute may be referred to a Board of Appeal, and a decision of a majority of the board shall determine the issue. Such board shall consist of three persons properly qualified to decide the question at issue , one to be appointed by the Building Inspector, one to be appointed by the appellant , and the third to be selected by the two so chosen. Each member shall take an oath to faithfully perform his duties and shall serve without stated compensation, but shall be paid such fees 4a as may be allowed by the Mayor, and all necessary ex- i.., � _ penses; all said amounts shall be paid by the party appealing if said question be decided against the ap- pellant , but if said question be decided in favor of the party taking the appeal, all said amounts shall be paid by the city. Appeals from the decisions of the Building Inspector shall be taken within ten days after such de- cision is made by filing with the Building Inspector a notice of appeal on blanks to be provided for that pur- pose, stating specifically the question or questions which the appellant; desires to have passed upon. The Board of Appeals shall have pourer to pass upon the true intent and meaning of the several. provisions of this Code , and also when it is claimed that an equally good and more desirable form of ,construction or material can be employed in any specific case , to permit the same, if concurred in by a majority of said board, but the Board shall not otherwise have pourer to modify any of the provisions of this Code. VIOLATION OF ORDINANCE. /j0• SECTION lam. Any person or persons , firm or cor- poration, violating any of the provisions of this Ordi- nance or failing to conform to any of the provisions thereof, or failing to obey any order of the Building Inspector, fire marshall or Chief of the Fire Department or Board of Appeal in pursuance hereof, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be subject to a penalty of a. fine of not less than five ($5.00 ) dollars , nor more than two, hundred ($200.00 ) dollars , the same to be in the discretion of the Court, dependent upon the character of the act involved, and the continued violation shall constitute a separate offense. Any architect, civil engineer, builder,plumber, carpenter, mason, contractor, sub-contractor, foreman or employe who shall assist in the violation of this Ordinance or of any order or permit issued thereunder shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be subject to penalties above specified. REPEALS. SECTION 3=M. All former ordinances of the City of Wichita Falls affecting or relating to the construction, alteration or removal of buildings , or other structures , and all other ordinances or parts thereof, inconsistent herewith, are hereby repealed. DATE WHEN ORDINANCE IS TO TAKE EFFECT. SECTION lam. (Usz-reguler-ctty�-adoption- -form) . c,t �. ( ., WALLS OF FRAME BUILDINGS. / SECTION6. I �}zot_case shall a frame building be erected within feet of the interior side line of a lot or within fifteen feet from the center of the alley on the rear lot line unless the space be- tween the studs on any such side be filled in solidly with not less than two and one half (22) inches of brickwork or other fireproof materials; when within - one foot of any such line, such did.e shall be con- structed entirely of brick not less than eight inches thick, extending twelve (12 ) inches above the roof boards, and if used as a party wall, the ends ofthe floor beams shall be staggered or so separated that not less than four inches of brickwork will be be- tween the beams where they rest on said walls, or the said walls increased to not less than twelve (12) inches in thickness. MOVING PICTURE BOOTHS AND MACHINES. LOCATION //I/' SECTION -43t,. The booth must not be placed directly over an exit, and in all cases shall be securely an- chored or fastened so as to prevent dislcd gment in case of panic@ ab SIZE SECTION 4. Each room, compartment, booth or en- closure in which a motion picture machine or device is installeddball be not less than seven ( 7) feet in height, with area of floor space varying."in accord- ance with the number of machines or devices installed in such booth, as follows : One picture machine 6 feet x 8, feet One picture machine and one stereopticon, . 9 n x 8 rr Two Picture machines and one stereopticon, 12 feet x 8 " // CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT. SECTION--7-. (a) Metal or Asbestos Booth - If the room, compartment, booth or enclosure is constructed of galvanized iron, hard asbestos board, asbestos building lumber, or their equivalent, it must be con- structed and equipped substantially as follows: W 1i r � � FRAME - To be made of at least 12 inch by 12 inch by 4 inch angle iron or tee irons , as follows : Four outside horizontal members at top and bottom. Four corner uprights . R Intermediate uprights on sides and intermediate mem- bers on roofs , spaced at least every two feet. Doorway to be two feet wide by at least five feet " high, with an angle iron framing. Said doorway shall not open into main auditorium and shall be equipped wth a strong spring or gravity weight to keep same tightly closed but not locked when motion picture machine is in operation. All joints in frames to be made with 3/16 inch steel plates , to which each angle iron or tee iron shall be riveted or bolted by the use of at least two 4 inch bolts or rivbts . All bolts or rivOts to have flat heads , said heads always to be placed on exterior side of booth and properly countersunk. COVERING OF BOOTH - Sides and top of booth and main entrance door shall be covered with hard asbestos boards or asbestos building lumber, of at least �- inch thickness , or their equivalent, or with steel or gal- vanized sheet iron of not less than No. 20 U.S. gauge . The Asbestos, or its equivalent, shall be so cut and arranged that vertical joints between boards shall al- ways come over an angle or tee iron to which it shall be securely fastened by means of proper bolts and nuts spaced not more than six inches apart. The sheet metal shall be so cut and arranged that joints shall always come over a member, be overlapped and bolted or riveted to such member; bolts or rivets. to be spaced not over three inches in cent6rs. FLOORING - Floor shall be made of two parts , an up- per and a lower floor. Lower floor may be of wood, V8 inch minimum thickness , supported on lower leg of horizontal angle irons . Resting on this floor shall bd a floor made of hard asbestos board, asbestos building lumber of 3/8 inch mininum thickness , or an equally good non-combustible material. OPENINGS - There shall be not more than two open- ings in the booth for each machine - one for observa- tion by the operator and one for operation of the machine. Opening fo r machine shall not be more than six inches high and twelve inches long. Opening for operator shall be not more than four inches wide nor more than twelve inches high. The two openings for each machine shall be provided with gravity doorq con strutted of metal not less than 3/1 6 inch in thick- ness; when closed they shall overlap the openings s.t least two inches on all sides , and be arranged to slide, without binding, in properly constructed grooves ; said doors to be held open normally by use of a fine combustible cord fastened to a fusible link which melts at a temperature of 160 degrees F. , the whole so arranged that the doors will close automatically upon the severing of the cord or the fusing of the link. The main or entrance door shall be hun&,,on.at least three heavy hinges and arranged to close against a substantial metal rabbet. The door shall also be provided with a substantial spring which will' keep It closed tightly. SHELVES - All shelves , furniture and fixtures � (I\A /' M within the booth shall be constructed of incombusti- ble material. VENTILATION - Booth shall be provided with a ven- tilating inlet in each of three sides ; said inlets to be fifteen inches long and three inches high, the lower side of same to be not more than three inches above floor level. Said inlets shall be covered on the outside by a wire netting of not greater than 1/8 inch mesh, to be firmly se.c.ured to the asbestos boards or metal by means of iron strips and screws or rivets and on inside by gravity doors arranged to slide in properly constructed grooves , and which, when closed, shall overlap ventilator openings at least two inches on all sides ; said doors to be held open normally by use of a fine combustible cord fastened to a fusible link which melts at a temperature of 160 degrees F. , so arranged that the doors will automatically close upon the severing of the cord or fusing of the link. Near the center of the top of the booth shall be a circular opening of not less than ten inches in diam- eter, the upper side of said opening to be provided with an iron flange, which Flange is to be securely fastened to the tee irons supporting the roof. Se- curely fastened to this flange shall be a metalline vent pipe of not less than ten inches in diameter, said pipe leading to the outside of the b4.i1ding or to a special incombustible vent flue; all parts of vent pipe to be at least six inches from any combustible material. For the comfort of the operator it is important to provide for a constant current of air to pass outward through the opening or vent flue at the rate of not less than thirty cubic feet per minute when the booth is in use. (b) BRICK, TILE, OR CONCRETE BOOTH - If room, compartment, booth or enclosure is constructed of brick, tile or concrete, it shall have walls not less in thickness than eight inches , except that if re- inforced concrete is used the thickness need be only , .k four inches . The ventilation and general arrangement of the booth and the protection of openings shall con- form with the requirements of subdivision ( a) pre- ceding. GLASS BOOTH- In addition to the list o . - �' tern comnonly named as siittable for theme struct- ion of m picture machine booths or„ at closures , we desire to wired glass and t 'd that., in our opinion, bar, on physiol al reasons , a wired glass booth properly tr. may be considered !` the best type of picture ine enclosure. We es- pecial-ly recommend. s a mach enclosure for new theaters of high+ ss constructs d exclusive '*Features . Th, d rn picture machine and film are note s ally hazardous combination from within. The >r.r.n'v++.,w.wrrw.wv...,rrtr+�lMrWYM,0.Wprr+ti'e+'+.:narmu'tit:+w...9,ui.,w',nn, r�,.r.,A:.-:,:. .crQ..4`ft'�!Fn-Tk",1�I tFlaa'I" rrt' �M15+bn'?'rAYR.+ta"'i Y�Sa'M,R4�8Clrt+&&� .... v J Ij rincipal dangers that exist, and which must be uarded against, are introduced from without. They c e about by the operator fastening the magazine do s open, by smoking, by failure immediately to re t n the film to its metal container when taken fro the machine magazine after showing, and sue ... like isregard or ordinary caution. The oncealed booth invites carelessness a a disregar of regulations by operators who ha no sense of sponsibility, and prevents detee on of their shor omings . On the other hand, it huts Y , off from ob rvation the work of the skil d and con- scientious o ra.tor who i.s:proud of his w k and his work room. T . re are other reasons in vor of a t to sum them all up is o state glass booth, b that a glass bo th is 6 strong fadtor n preventing ..�----� picture theater res. A glass booth s uld have the f nt wall opaque as in other types , t the sides d rear wall should ' be approved wired gl s securely et in metal frames . The floor, covering a oth ,construetion er d ails of and arrangement may be the sam as those in s.ubcliis t ion (a) preceding. use of portable booths (d) PORTABLE BOOTH. - should be discouraged, and nstead, where it is de- sired to exhibit motion p t , res temporarily, in places of assemblage , s a halls belonging to civic or commercial Organizat , ons , uxches , schools , etcp . such exhibitions shoul be giv with approved slow- burning or non-infla le film, nd machines approved for use xith such Ti m� 1,V:'Ltliotit. booth. However, for the sake of co enience, if a '' ortable booth is , desired, its cons uction may f oll the specif ica- . ` tions for a perm ent booth, with t following ex- ,;� � ceptions: ry oe ` Intermedia uprights may be spaced .very four feet Special r a.ns for ventilation need no be provided except the. there shall be an opening for en.tilation 1' in the to 'of the booth, this opening to b ten IDelles w in diame r and a metal sleeve at least eig een inches in heig , and with a ventilating cap, 9.11 be attach thereto. ', t y ma be made in a folding type , - a s o nstru c m ,1 booth � r j ed at when assembled. it will be rigid and e.11 , �o is tight so the flames may not a pass through era , The base of the booth shall have a flange extens n utward on all four sides ., provided with a number of ., holes , through which booth may be fastened to floor. PICTURE MACHINE SECTION �&. All motion picture machines shall be of an approved type, and shall be equipped with the necessary automatic device6. to protect the film from ignition while being projected, in case of accident to the machine's mechanism or its failure to function properly. All picture machines shall be securely fastened to the floor to prevent accidental overturning or moving of same. Picture machines may be operated by hand or by approved electrical power. PICTURE FILM SECTION Sl. No films shall be exposed in the booth other than the one film in process of transfer to or from the machine or from the upper to lower magazine, or in process of rewinding. All films not in magazine or in process of rewinding shall be kept in metal case constructed. of not less than No. 20 U.S. gauge metal. Cover shall be of same material end provided with latch, which. will keep it tightly clos- ed. No solder to be used in construction of case. No material of a combustible nature shall be stored within any booth except the films needed for one day's operation. LAMPS AND WIRING BOOTH AND MACHINE. // SECTION l-&. Each are lamp, used as a part of the motion picture machines , shall be constructed as specified in the National Electrical Code , and the wiring of same shall not be of less capacity than No. 60 B & S gauge. All wiring inside of enclosure to be in conduit and all switches and cutouts in steel cabinets , except operator's switch to lamp, which shad l be placed under machine supports. All rheostatsf and other electrical apparatus must conform to the rules of the National Electrical Code. No artifi-cial light shall be used in any room, com- partment or booth in which a motion picture machine is installed, except that produced by electricity. One light allowed for each machine and one for the rewinding bench, but all such lights shall be provid- ed with wire gm.rds , and reinforced cord shall be a.sed for pendant purposes. FIRE PROTECTION " y'0 SECTION Every motion picture theater shall be j equipped with approved labeled hard chemical fire ex- tinguishers as follows : One extinguisher of the carbon tetrachloride type l located in an accessible place within eastt reach of the operator of the picture machines. One extinguisher of the sdda` and acid type , two and one-half gallon size, located outside of and. near i to entrance door -to booth,, I 6L ' r t i